Authors of manuscripts of should present an accurate account of the work undertaken as well as objectively and unbiasedly discuss its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the manuscript, and should contain sufficient detail and references to allow others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable. Authors must ensure that comments arisen from the reviewing process of the manuscript by the reviewers and editor-in-chief have been appropriately addressed and/or responded to.
Data access and retention
If requested, authors should be prepared to provide the raw data in connection with the manuscript to editorial review panel, if this is not in conflict with the ethical approval criteria of the research.
Originality, plagiarism, and acknowledgement of sources
The authors should ensure that the written work is entirely original. If the authors refer to or use the work and/or words of others, it must be appropriately cited or quoted. Any statement that is an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. Authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature or direction of the reported work.
Multiple, redundant, or concurrent publication
An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.
Authorship of the manuscript
Authorship should list all, and be limited only to, those that have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported work. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the work, they should be acknowledged. The corresponding author should ensure that all coauthors have seen and approved the final version of the manuscript, and agreed to its submission for to the journal for review and publication.
Research involving human participants
If the work involves data collection from human participants, authors must ensure that appropriate ethical approval was obtained from the relevant institutional committee(s) prior to data collection. The authors must ensure that the research has been conducted according to the restraints of the ethical approval and any relevant laws. Authors should also include a statement in the manuscript that ethical approval was granted and informed consent was obtained from any human participants. The privacy rights of human participants must always have been observed.
Disclosure and conflicts of interest
All authors should disclose in their manuscript the external sources of financial support and any substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of the work reported in the manuscript.
Fundamental errors in published articles
When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in their own published article, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal’s editor-in-chief or publisher, and cooperate with them to correct, or retract, the article.