The Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education publishes peer-reviewed original research, topical issues, and best practice articles from throughout the world dealing with Cooperative Education (Co-op) and Work Integrated Learning/Education (WIL). In this Journal, Co-op/WIL is defined as an educational approach that uses relevant work-based projects that form an integrated and assessed part of an academic program of study (e.g., work placements, internships, practicum). These programs can be described by a variety of names such as work-based learning, workplace learning, work-engaged learning, professional training, industry-based learning, engaged industry learning, career and technical education, internships, experiential education, experiential learning, vocational education and training, fieldwork education, and service learning. The Journal's main aim is to allow specialists working in these areas to disseminate their findings and share their knowledge for the benefit of institutions, co-op/WIL practitioners, and researchers. The Journal desires to encourage quality research and explorative critical discussion that will lead to the advancement of effective practices, development of further understanding of co-op/WIL, and promote further research.

Volume 18 (2017)
Issue 3
Applying a conceptual model in sport sector work-integrated learning contexts
Deborah Agnew, Shane Pill, Janice Orrell
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(3), 185-198
Sport, partnership, work, integrated, learning, model
This paper applies a conceptual model for work-integrated learning (WIL) in a multidisciplinary sports degree program. Two examples of WIL in sport will be used to illustrate how the conceptual WIL model is being operationalized. The implications for practice are that curriculum design must recognize a highly flexible approach to the nature of placements and, as a result, emphasize the necessity to conduct a post-practicum debriefing to support the valuable learning and to continue the duty of care towards the student. We propose the expansion of Martin, Rees, and Edwards model to include both a partnership and debriefing component for sport WIL in Australia. This inclusion will not only provide a sustainable model for sport partnership WIL programs in Australia, but ensure that a focus on duty of care towards students is a core responsibility and moral obligation for universities and placement organizations.
Challenges implementing work-integrated learning in human resource management university courses
Laura Rook
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(3), 199-212
Work-integrated learning, human resource management, challenges, qualitative research
The examination of work-integrated learning (WIL) programs in the undergraduate Human Resource Management (HRM) curriculum is an area under-represented in the Australian literature. This paper identifies the challenges faced in implementing WIL into the HRM undergraduate curriculum. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 participants including academics, careers advisors, professionals and students from nine Australian universities. The findings show that a lack of resources, a clash of agendas, legal and ethical issues, expectations, the HRM profession and academic perspectives of WIL, are impacting on how WIL programs in HRM are being developed. Recommendations are made for the future development of WIL in HRM.
Examining the effect of co-op non-employment and rejection sensitivity on subjective well-being
Lauren Cormier, David Drewery
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(3), 213-224
Subjective well-being, job applications, rejection sensitivity, non-employment
A growing body of literature suggests the need to better understand the subjective well-being (SWB) of students enrolled in cooperative education (co-op) programs. Some co-op students will be unsuccessful in securing employment, yet there is a scarcity of existing quantitative research outlining the impact that this will have on students, particularly first work-term students who are engaging in the job-search process for the first time. Using an integrated framework of SWB, this paper seeks to address the negative effect of co-op unemployment on SWB and the potential moderating effect of students' rejection sensitivity. Two self-report surveys were analyzed (n=82). These were taken before and after first work-term students were informed of their employment results. The results showed a significantly negative main effect on SWB after discovering they were not employed, compared to their employed peers. Rejection sensitivity was found to be a moderator of the effect. These findings imply that consideration should be given to ways to support this group of co-op students to ameliorate effects of non-employment on well-being.
Differences in the emotional intelligence between undergraduate therapy and business students and the population norms
Nigel Gribble, Richard K. Ladyshewsky, Richard Parsons
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(3), 225-242
Clinical placements, work-integrated learning, emotional intelligence, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech pathology, business students, curriculum
Students occasionally experience difficulties during work-integrated learning and clinical placements. The authors reasoned that these placement difficulties might be related to the students' emotional intelligence (EI) being underdeveloped before they commence full-time clinical placements. A cross-sectional survey design was used to measure the EI of third-year undergraduate occupational therapy, physiotherapy, speech pathology and second-year business students (n = 369). Results showed that over 40% of therapy students reported scores that are considered low or markedly low in the EI domains of independence, problem-solving and stress tolerance. The EI scores for therapy students that were significantly higher than the Australian EI norms were self-actualization, interpersonal relationships, empathy, and impulse control. The mean scores of business students were within the normal range for all EI domains. A recommendation of our study is to include strategies that develop EI throughout the therapy curriculum and when preparing students for clinical placements.
The strategic and legal risks of work-integrated learning: An enterprise risk management perspective
Craig Cameron
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(3), 246-256
Work-integrated learning, legal risk, strategic risk, risk management, enterprise risk management
Work-integrated learning (WIL) is a risky business for universities. WIL is a strategic risk worthy of pursuing by universities in the prevailing higher education environment, which is characterized by competition, changes in funding arrangements and stakeholder demand for WIL. Nevertheless the strategic opportunities that WIL presents cannot be achieved without the university taking on unavoidable and distinct legal risks that may have serious financial and reputational consequences for the university. This article examines WIL through a lens of enterprise risk management. The author describes how WIL is a strategic risk for universities, and identifies the possible legal risks of WIL through a review of empirical studies and case law in Australia. It is argued that risk management involves a balance between the university goals of maximizing the strategic value and minimizing the legal risks in relation to WIL.
Positioning critical reflection within cooperative education: A transactional model
Patricia Lucas
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(3), 257-268
Critical reflection, work-integrated learning, transaction, qualitative research, cooperative education, transactional model
Proponents of cooperative and work-integrated education embed critical reflection in their programs to enhance the likelihood of an experience resulting in meaningful learning for students. Theoretically framed guidelines in the literature on how to determine and facilitate critical reflection in practice remains very limited, highlighting the importance of developing ways of improving stakeholders understanding and practice of critical reflection within these complex learning arrangements. Data analysis of a qualitative case study exploring critical reflection in a specific cooperative education context enabled the development and design of a transactional model to illustrate the positioning and functionality of critical reflection. The theoretical underpinnings for this model are derived from John Dewey’s educational writings. To date no published diagrammatic representations have been found to assist with the development and enhancement of our understanding of the complex dynamics and interplay of factors that influence and contribute to the practice of critical reflection, and the consequences of these transactions.
Cooperative education in hospitality and tourism: Extending standard categorization systems for the classification of industry placements
Yvonne Wood, Megan Roberts
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(3), 269-292
Cooperative education, work-integrated learning, hospitality, tourism, curriculum, hospitality and tourism careers
It is important for students to make informed, relevant choices when selecting their Cooperative Education placement organization. When students are required to secure their own placement, identifying organizations to approach is a challenging task, especially due to the diverse range of potential hospitality and tourism placement organizations. Therefore, presenting students with an Industry Placement Classification (IPC) framework provides them with valuable information concerning the activities of potential placement organizations and is a useful tool for institutions that seek to support students in their decision-making process. The IPC framework was created by combining and extending the Australia New Zealand Standard Industrial Codes, Business Industry Codes and the Tourism Satellite Account, to accurately classify organizations. This paper describes a study that resulted in the extension of standard categorization systems, which has led to a greater understanding of the characteristics and structure of Cooperative Education placements undertaken by Hospitality and Tourism undergraduate students.
Issue 2 (Special Issue)
Special Issue: Advancing the WIL curriculum to enhance graduate employability. Papers developed from presentations at the Australian Collaborative Education Network Annual Conference 2016, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.

Guest Editor: Dr Anna Rowe
Developing graduate employability skills and attributes: Curriculum enhancement through work-integrated learning
Anna D. Rowe, Karsten E. Zegwaard
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(2), 87-99
Work-integrated learning, employability, employment outcomes, research developments, curriculum, assessment, workload
Work-integrated learning (WIL) is considered a key strategy for promoting graduate employability. Graduate employability is a complex concept, one which has broadened in recent years to encapsulate a diverse range of skills, attributes, and other measures such as networks, professional-identity and active citizenship. This special issue presents recent scholarship on WIL and employability, addressing the question of how WIL contributes to enhancing employability outcomes for students and graduates. The importance of embedding WIL experiences in the curriculum so they are effectively supported by appropriate pedagogical strategies is emphasized, as well as the provision of quality assessment to support employability outcomes. Such supports, while critical, have resourcing implications for higher education, including impacts on staff workload which also need to be considered. Employability is considered in relation to the related construct of employment outcomes, pointing to ways in which these two perspectives can be better integrated. Recommendations are made for future research.
The impact of work-integrated learning experiences on attaining graduate attributes for exercise and sports science students
Melinda Hall, Deborah Pascoe, Megan Charity
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(2), 101-113
work-integrated learning, exercise and sports science, graduate attributes
Exercise and Sports Science (E&SS) programs at Federation University Australia provide work-integrated learning (WIL) opportunities for students to develop, apply and consolidate theoretical knowledge in the workplace. This study aimed to determine the influence of WIL experiences on achieving common graduate attributes for E&SS students. From a larger study cohort (N=80), semi-structured interviews (n=4) delved into participant perceptions of graduate attributes and the impact of positive and negative WIL experiences. Using constant comparative analysis, interviews were coded and arranged into lower and higher order themes using the Graduate Employability Skills publication as a framework and the process validated by a WIL colleague. Results showed three out of four essential graduate attributes were developed during all WIL experiences regardless of whether they were positive or negative. These findings have implications for E&SS higher education providers and WIL agencies in ensuring the development of key graduate attributes during all WIL experiences.
Senior managers' and recent graduates' perceptions of employability skills for health services management
Diana Messum, Lesly Wilkes, Cath Peters, Debra Jackson
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(2), 115-128
employability skills, health services management, work-integrated learning, generic skills, skill gaps
If work-integrated learning (WIL) is intended by universities to meet the demand for work-ready graduates, identification of skill requirements for development on placements is a critical part of the learning process. Health services management specific employability skills perceived to be important by managers and recent graduates working in the field and their perceptions of skills they need to improve are not readily available in the literature. This research acknowledges the context specific nature or employability skills. Senior managers and recent graduates working in health services management were identified from a placement data base used at a NSW university, and were emailed a common questionnaire. A total of 38 senior managers and 42 recent graduates completed emailed surveys, rating importance and skills observed for 44 employability skills items. Items were informed by the literature and content analysis of advertisements for graduate health management positions. There was strong agreement between the two groups on important employability skills, and the top seven items on which they agreed were all generic in nature. Skill gaps were also revealed, many of which recent graduates did not appear to recognize.
Combining quality work-integrated learning and career development learning through the use of the SOAR model to enhance employability
Gregory Reddan, Maja Rauchle
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(2), 129-139
work-integrated learning, career development learning, employability, SOAR model
This paper presents students' perceptions of the benefits to employability of a suite of courses that incorporate both work-integrated learning (WIL) and career development learning (CDL). Field Project A and Field Project B are elective courses in the Bachelor of Exercise Science at Griffith University. These courses engage students in active and personalized learning experiences that have been designed utilizing the principles of the SOAR model (Self -awareness, Opportunity awareness, Aspirations, Results). Four students who completed both courses participated in semistructured interviews. Data was collected using thematic analysis of student responses. Results indicated that employability was enhanced as students developed realistic aspirations based on sound information and WIL experiences that can help achieve their personal career goals as they transition into the workforce. The courses provide a practical model for university academics and career development practitioners to work collaboratively. Importantly, they give students a competitive advantage, enabling them to become more proactive, confident and motivated in maximizing opportunities to manage their careers and lifelong learning.
Using the student lifecycle approach to enhance employability: An example from Criminology and Criminal Justice
Lyndel Bates, Hennessey Hayes
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(2), 141-151
work-integrated learning (WIL), employability, student lifecycle, criminology
Universities are increasingly focusing on the employability of students after they graduate from their studies. While practicums is one way of enhancing students' employability, the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice embeds employability throughout its degree programs using a range of strategies. These methods are based on the student lifecycle approach embedded into the Employability Framework. Therefore, students are able to undertake activities that enhance their employability as they transition into university, transition through their degree program and then transition out of university and into the workforce. Alumni are involved within approaches located in the transition up and back stage of the student lifecycle. This paper uses the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice as a case study for how employability can be scaffolded throughout an undergraduate degree program. It clearly indicates that students can begin to develop their understanding and skills in the area of employability within criminology before they start their degree, throughout their studies and after they graduate.
Practical typology of authentic work-integrated learning activities and assessments
Friederika Kaider, Rachael Hains-Wesson, Karen Young
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(2), 153-165
Work-integrated learning, authentic assessment, non-placement WIL, work-related assessment, typology
Increased graduate employment is an aspiration of Australian universities who are adopting new and innovative approaches to ensure that all students have opportunities to develop the employability skills much sought after by employers. Placements have been a traditional means for developing such skills but because these are not available to all students other non-placement activities such as industry and community projects, and simulated learning environments have become alternative ways of assisting students become job-ready. These authentic work-related activities enable students to apply and practice disciplinary learning in workplace contexts as well as develop graduate capabilities. A study at an Australian University investigated 1,500 assessments from 40 courses across four Faculties to determine the nature and extent to which authentic assessments were being embedded in courses. This paper presents the development of an authentic assessment framework and typology that was employed to conduct the action-in-research investigation and to illustrate the investigative outcome, as well as holding prospects as a curriculum development tool and student engagement and development tool.
Academic workload implications of assessing student learning in work-integrated learning
Ayse A. Bilgin, Anna D. Rowe, Lindie Clark
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(2), 167-183
academic workload, assessment, external partners, student learning, work-integrated learning
Assessment of student learning is a crucial part of quality work-integrated learning (WIL), yet presents some significant challenges for WIL practitioners. Assessment of WIL differs to assessment in classroom based courses because of the complexities of assessing the more holistic nature of learning in WIL, as well as (in many cases) managing the involvement of an external partner in the assessment process. This paper investigates academic workload implications of WIL assessment for staff at an Australian university. Over two years 34 WIL courses were surveyed, with 30 staff interviewed over a wider three-year period. Analysis of survey data reveals assessment of student learning is the largest single contributor to academic workload in WIL courses, with qualitative data providing some insight into the reasons for this. This paper reports findings from the study, noting implications and recommendations for practice, policy and future research.
Issue 1
Road testing graduate attributes and course learning outcomes of an environmental science degree via a work-integrated learning placement
Michael Whelan
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(1), 1-13
WIL, curriculum, graduate attributes, course learning outcomes, employability
Graduate attributes and course learning outcomes are an integral part of higher education in Australia. Testing the performance of graduates in the workplace with regard to graduate attributes and course learning outcomes is a not a common occurrence. This study has road tested the graduate attributes and course learning outcomes of a bachelor degree in environmental science via students participating in a work-integrated learning (WIL) placement. Comparisons of importance and perceptions of students' skill level between host-supervisors, students and teaching staff were made. On the whole teaching staff perceived students' skills as "adequate" while the students and host-supervisors perceive students' skill level to approach "proficient". Students on WIL placements appear to meet hosts' expectations and there appears to be no significant gap in the curriculum. Road testing graduate attributes and course learning outcomes has led to changes in the curriculum. A recommendation is made to define the skill level of a work-ready graduate that is quantifiable rather than use terms such as "well-developed".
In search of graduate employability: An exploration of student identity
Sally Smith, Colin Smith, Ella Taylor-Smith, Julia Fotheringham
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(1), 15-24
Employability, work-related learning, student identity, professional identity, work placement, transition
Universities are adopting institution-wide projects to increase student work placements and work-related learning across all subject disciplines. However, there are large variations between programs in uptake, with limited evidence explaining why this might be the case. This study uses identity theory (Stryker, 1980) to explore student perceptions of placement and work-related learning. Students involved in an institution-wide graduate employability project, including curriculum development with new employability-focused courses, were invited to express their attitudes to work-related learning through in-class surveys. The survey was completed by 103 students across three different programs. Students drew on resources for identity work, including role models and imaginings of themselves in a working environment. However, while they were found to have used developmental networks to support decisions about university courses, many had limited access to networks that could support their career decisions. Finally, the study highlighted that many students lacked awareness of the new courses as opportunities for work-related learning.
Enhancing employability of exercise science students
Gregory Reddan
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(1), 25-41
Employability, career development learning, work-integrated learning, exercise science
The notion of employability is gaining importance as an essential outcome of many degrees in institutions of higher education throughout Australia. This paper aims to determine the effects of an Exercise Science course, which includes elements of both career development learning and work-integrated learning, on six dimensions of employability -commencement readiness; collaboration; informed decision-making; lifelong learning; professional practices and standards; and integration of knowledge/ theory and practice. The course components examined by the presented study included fieldwork placements, workshops and related career development assignments. Work Readiness Scales were administered prior to and on completion of the course. Students also rated the extent to which they considered any changes in their abilities were the result of each of the course components. Furthermore, responses to an openended questionnaire were analyzed to determine common themes affecting student development of each of the six dimensions. Comparison of pre- and post-work placement scores on the Work Readiness Scales demonstrated statistically significant differences in all the dimensions of employability except informed decision-making. Student ratings suggested that placements had a more significant effect on the changes in their abilities than the course workshops and assignments, however all three course components contributed to the development of workplace competencies. Student responses indicated that the course increased their awareness of personal strengths and weaknesses in relation to employability, as well as their knowledge of specific occupations relevant to exercise science.
A model to operate an on-campus retail store for workplace experiential learning
Kiru Truman, Roger B. Mason, Petrus Venter
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(1), 43-57
Collaborative learning, curriculum, retail mall, campus shop, cooperative learning
Many retailers argue that university students do not have the practical experience and skills required in the workplace when graduating. This paper reports on research undertaken to address this issue and to identify a model to guide development and implementation of a retail store, on a university campus, to be used for work-integrated learning. A literature review was undertaken before a qualitative survey was conducted with 22 respondents, including retail lecturers, retail chain staff and other learning and retail experts. Data collection was via questionnaires, administered during semi-structured interviews. Lecturers provided details on activities and assessments used for practical assignments. Peer feedback via focus groups critiqued the findings once analysis was complete, increasing the trustworthiness of findings. A model was proposed that best suited the needs of retailers, learners and the university. Suggestions for further research are provided.
The student experience of PACE at Macquarie University: Understanding motivations for learning
Kath McLachlan, Felicity Rawlings-Sanaei, Colina Mason, Debbie Haski-Levanthal, Hussein Nabeel
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(1), 59-71
Motivation, experiential learning, intrinsic motivators, extrinsic motivators
Professional and Community Engagement (PACE) at Macquarie University offers undergraduate students experiential learning opportunities with local, regional and international partners. Through PACE, students work on mutually beneficial projects that both meet the partner's organizational goals and enable students to strengthen graduate capabilities while gaining credit towards their degree and contributing to positive social change. This paper will outline findings from the Student Experience of PACE Project, which investigates the perceived impact of PACE on students' graduate capabilities and career aspirations, specifically addressing the following research question: Does PACE offer any distinct motives for learning? The findings bearing on distinctive motivators, such as personal and professional development, practical experience and constructive social action align with the literature in affirming the importance of these factors for achieving not only educational, but also lifelong learning objectives.
Strengthening attainment of student learning outcomes during work-integrated learning: A collaborative governance framework across academia, industry and students
Amanda Henderson, Franziska Trede
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(1), 73-86
University, industry, student, collaborative governance, work-based learning, graduate, employability, capability
Graduate capability and employability are regarded as critical success factors for degree programs by universities, industry, and the students. Furthering work-based experiences for academic credit within degree programs is being increasingly explored to assist employability. Effective work-based experiences are reliant on good partnerships between university, industry and student. Such successful relationships assist communication and understanding important for meaningful, quality work-based learning experiences and assessments. Collaborative governance is a finely nuanced arrangement that is dependent on commitment, shared understanding and building trust across university, industry and student guided by the student learning outcomes. Collaborative governance is presented in this paper as an effective framework to guide and organize the structures and processes of university, industry and student to facilitate work-based learning that supports student capability through the attainment of desired outcomes.
Volume 17 (2016)
Issue 4 (Special Issue)
Special Issue: Defining and Advancing Cooperative and Work-integrated Education. Papers developed from presentations at the WACE 2nd International Research Symposium on Cooperative and Work-Integrated Education, Victoria, Canada, 2016.

Guest Editor: Norah McRae
The development of a proposed global work-integrated learning framework
Norah McRae, Nancy Johnston
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(4), 337-348
Work-integrated learning (WIL); experiential education; learning outcomes; WIL Global Framework
Building on the work completed in BC that resulted in the development of a WIL Matrix for comparing and contrasting various forms of WIL with the Canadian co-op model, this paper proposes a Global Work-Integrated Learning Framework that allows for the comparison of a variety of models of work-integrated learning found in the international post-secondary education system. The Global Framework enables researchers, practitioners, and other WIL stakeholders including students and employers to better understand the key goals and outcomes of each model as well as explore the commonalities and differences between the various models based upon identified attributes of quality experiential education programs. This Framework also provides a means for situating or developing new models of WIL intentionally designed for specific experiential learner outcomes and program impacts. At the institutional level, the Framework provides a mechanism for rationalizing the many, and often independently designed and delivered, WIL offerings by connecting them through their shared attributes and providing a way to differentiate them through their unique processes and outcomes. The proposed Framework is based upon high impact practices for experiential learning as identified in the literature and allows users to map WIL programs directly to the academic agenda through learning outcomes.
Developing global standards framework and quality integrated models for cooperative and work-integrated education programs
Buratin Khampirat, Norah McRae
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(4), 349-362
Standards framework, cooperative education, work-integrated learning, quality evaluation model
Cooperative and Work-integrated Education (CWIE) programs have been widely accepted as educational programs that can effectively connect what students are learning to the world of work through placements. Because a global quality standards framework could be a very valuable resource and guide to establishing, developing, and accrediting quality CWIE programs, this study was aiming at the development of a global standards framework, implementation strategy and a quality evaluation model for CWIE programs. A focus Group comprised of practitioners and researchers of CWIE programs in Thailand, South Africa, Namibia and Canada came together to develop such a framework using Activity Theory. Content analysis and text data mining methods were employed to establish the evaluation model. The authors believed that this standards framework and a well-tested quality evaluation model could act as a valuable resource and guide, as well as a tool, for CWIE practitioners and administrators across all disciplines on a global scale.
Enhancing industry engagement with work-integrated learning: Capacity building for industry partners
Sonia Ferns, Leonie Russell, Judie Kay
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(4), 363-375
Work-integrated learning, partnerships, industry resources, graduate employability
Work-integrated learning (WIL) enables the embedding of relevant real-world learning into curriculum resulting in students that are better prepared to enter the workforce and meet demands of employers seeking work-ready graduates. Research confirms students who undertake WIL as part of their degree consistently achieve better employment outcomes. Industry's role in WIL is critical and, therefore, engagement with industry partners is essential to determine what is required to support their engagement and contribution to WIL. This Office of Learning and Teaching funded research project, aimed to determine the topics, format and mode of resources industry perceives as most useful. The project used a mixed methods approach to gather data from a range of sources with findings confirming industry are seeking resources on assessment, feedback and supervision of students as well as information on clarification of roles and negotiating partnerships. The project outcomes informed the development of user-friendly and accessible resources for industry.
Developing global-ready graduates: The CANEU-COOP experience
Norah McRae, Karima Ramji, Linghong Lu, Mary Lesperance
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(4), 377-386
Cultural Intelligence, intercultural effectiveness, international work-integrated learning
Post-secondary institutions spend considerable resources on programs, such as study abroad and international workintegrated learning, which involve students' participation in international experiences. One significant impetus for these programs is the hope that through exposing students to international settings these students will be better prepared to be successful in global workplaces upon graduation, in essence be more "global-ready". However, simply having an international experience does not necessarily lead to the development of capabilities that result in global workplace success. In addition to the knowledge, skills and abilities required for any workplace, being successful in these global workplaces also requires intercultural effectiveness. This paper presents the findings of a study that examined the development of cultural intelligence (CQ), the ability to be effective in intercultural encounters, in students participating in a Canadian-European exchange program (CANEU-COOP) where the European students had a study term in Canada and the Canadian students had a co-op work term in Europe. The study found that while both groups of students developed CQ, there were differences between the groups. These findings reaffirm the importance of intentionally structuring international experiences to include curriculum about and assessment of intercultural effectiveness.
Using electronic portfolios to explore essential student learning outcomes in a professional development course
Erik R. Alanson, Richard A. Robles
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(4), 387-397
cooperative education, electronic portfolio, ePortfolio, learning outcomes, work-integrated learning
The following study utilizes an ePortfolio platform to examine desirable employment competencies during an introductory level professional development course for cooperative education students at a large, research intensive institution. The researchers created course activities allowing students to demonstrate essential learning outcomes derived from the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) LEAP Report (2008). While it is recognized that the student learning outcomes identified in the LEAP Report are intended to be examined through summative analysis at the conclusion of one's undergraduate experience, this study proposes that these learning outcomes can be promoted early during students' undergraduate careers through formative feedback in an ePortfolio development process. The results of this study suggest that ePortfolios could be used as a medium to encourage student confidence with respect to employment preparation. Further research should be conducted to longitudinally evaluate students' understanding and ability to demonstrate the LEAP Report's essential learning outcomes within the context of a cooperative education curriculum.
Depicting the possible self: Work-integrated learning students' narratives on learning to become a professional
Tracey Bowen
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(4), 399-411
Hoped-for-possible-selves, professionalism, rich pictures, self-regulation
Professionalism is not easily defined for newcomers to the workforce. While much of the work-ready research focuses on desired graduate attributes and skills, the larger issue is the ways in which students conceptualize professionalism from their observations and experiences of others, and how these conceptualizations affect their professional identity construction. Twelve Canadian and six Swedish students enrolled in WIL programs were asked how they think they learn to become a professional. Participants described similar experiences of continually renegotiating their sense of self in an effort to construct a hoped-for-possible professional self. Rich Pictures (RPs) were also used to explore how students visually conceptualized the process of becoming "the professional". Participants from both countries emphasized the importance of self-management and self-censorship in terms of knowing how to look and sound like a professional. Participants used the RPs to visually depict their hoped-for possible self in contrast to the feared for self.
The influence of proactive socialization behaviors and team socialization on individual performance in the team
Antoine Pennaforte
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(4), 413-421
Team-performance; proactive socialization behaviors; team socialization
On the basis of the role and the social exchange theories, this research investigated the direct and indirect antecedents of three dimensions of team performance (proficiency, adaptivity, proactivity) developed through cooperative education. The theoretical model examined how proactive socialization behaviors led to team socialization and team performance, and how team socialization mediated the relationship between proactive behaviors and team performance. Results from multiple linear regressions on a sample of 2905 student-workers involved in cooperative education programs globally supported the model. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as limitations and propositions for future research, were discussed.
The role of work-integrated learning in developing students' perceived work self-efficacy
Gregory Reddan
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(4), 423-436
Work self-efficacy; work-integrated learning; career development learning; exercise science
The notion of work self-efficacy is significant as the self-efficacy beliefs of an individual have considerable influence on his/her level of motivation and performance in the workplace. This paper aims to determine the effects of the learning activities of a work-integrated learning course in Exercise Science in relation to students' perceived work self-efficacy in industries relevant to their studies. Comparison of pre- and post-course scores on the Work Self-Efficacy Scale demonstrated significant improvement in students' perceived work self-efficacy in all seven dimensions, as well as their perceived skill levels in thirteen important aspects of the work environment. The results suggested that all three course components (the work experience placement, career development workshops and presentations from practicing lecturers and professionals) provided important contributions to students' development. The factors that were considered to be most influential included feedback from supervisors, personal motivation and involvement, and regular workplace experience.
Issue 3
Book Review: Educating the Deliberate Professional: Preparing for Future Practices (2016)
Karsten E. Zegwaard
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17, Book Review, 213-214
Franziska Trede, Celina McEwen
This book is Volume 17 of the Professional and Practice-Based Learning book series edited by Billett, Harteis, and Gruber. This Book Series aims to bring together international research on the development of professionals, organization of professional life, and educational experiences. Internationally, there is an increasing focus on work-integrated learning, workbased learning, ongoing professional development, and lifelong learning. Situated within this is the importance of deliberate and intentional approaches for engagement with learning around aspects of being a moral and ethical professional. Volume 17, Educating the Deliberate Professional: Preparing for Future Practices purposely addresses this importance.
Exploring the link between self-efficacy, workplace learning and clinical practice
Jennifer Cox, Maree Donna Simpson
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(3), 215-225
Self-efficacy, workplace learning, nursing education, competency, infection control
Pre-registration nurse education includes both conceptual and practical elements to prepare graduates for the transition to clinical practice. Workplace learning plays an important role in developing students' confidence, clinical skills and competency. This paper explores the, perhaps overlooked, centrality of self-efficacy to all areas of influence on students' and graduates' nursing practice, and proposes that clinical practice, in fact, lies at the intersection of selfefficacy and knowledge of core concepts. The potentially significant implications for both nursing education and clinical practice including the need for greater consideration of the pervasive influence of students’ self-efficacy in future curriculum development, are discussed.
Comparative cooperative education: Evaluating Thai models on work-integrated learning, using the German Duale Hochschule Baden-Wuerttemberg model as a benchmark
Karin Reinhard, Anna Pogrzeba
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(3), 227-247
Work-integrated learning, comparative cooperative education, intercultural benchmarking, Germany, Thailand
The role of industry in the higher education system is becoming more prevalent, as universities integrate a practical element into their curricula. However, the level of development of cooperative education and work-integrated learning varies from country to country. In Germany, cooperative education and work-integrated learning has a long tradition, due to vocational institutions having strong links with industry. In contrast, the work-integrated study models in Asia, such as in Thailand, offer limited levels of practical experience, as part of the higher education curricula. In addition, Thailand continues to experience a lack of skilled graduates, who are exposed to work-integrated learning during their studies. The study on which this paper is based seeks to benchmark study models in Thailand, against the German Duale Hochschule Baden-Wuerttemberg (DHBW) study model, in order to identify development opportunities in the Thai model, focusing on the aim of meeting the needs of industry. The Office of Higher Education Commission in Thailand hopes to address the inherent issues, through implementing the recommendations made in this paper.
A comparative study of cooperative education and work-integrated learning in Germany, South Africa, and Namibia
Karin Reinhard, Anna Pogrzeba, Rosemary Townsend, Carver Albertus Pop
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(3), 249-263
Work-integrated learning, comparative cooperative education, South Africa, Namibia, Germany
The Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University was the first higher education institution in Germany to combine on-the-job training and academic studies. The study model integrates theory and practice, both being components of cooperative education. The success of this university is based on its cooperation with over 10,000 companies. Students are employed and remunerated for the duration of their studies by their partner company. In South Africa and Namibia, while cooperative education programs have a rich history, the study models developed lack the commitment from industry to invest in work-integrated learning. The present study models involve students taking up unpaid practical semesters, in order to achieve the transfer of theoretical knowledge into a practical work-related setting. This comparative study outlines how universities of higher education, in Germany, South Africa and Namibia, in cooperation with industry, can further develop their model, in order to achieve financial stability and employment security for their students.
Examining the influence of selected factors on perceived co-op work-term quality from a student perspective
David Drewery, Colleen Nevison, T. Judene Pretti, Lauren Cormier, Sage Barclay, Antoine Pennaforte
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(3), 265-277
Perceptions, work-term quality, antecedents, conceptual model
This study discusses and tests a conceptual model of co-op work-term quality from a student perspective. Drawing from an earlier exploration of co-op students' perceptions of work-term quality, variables related to role characteristics, interpersonal dynamics, and organizational elements were used in a multiple linear regression analysis to predict co-op students' perceived work-term quality. A survey of co-op students (n = 1,937) measured their perceptions of selected variables following a recent co-op work-term. Results show that the variables explained a large percentage of variance (51.4%) in the outcomes variable, suggesting the conceptual model does explain students' perceptions of quality. Implications for practice and for future studies are discussed.
Cost and the craving for novelty: Exploring motivations and barriers for cooperative education and exchange students to go abroad
Tanya Behrisch
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(3), 279-294
Exchange, international, risk, motivations, barriers
Canadian universities aim to increase student participation in international learning experiences through mobility programs such as international co-op and academic exchange. According to the Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE), 97% of Canadian universities offer education abroad programs, reflecting a pervasive belief that international experiential learning is good for students as well as their home universities. Contrasting with this international orientation, a relatively small percentage of students actually complete international co-op and exchange. Research into what motivates or prevents students to undertake these somewhat risky ventures and knowledge of how to increase students' participation in these programs is limited. Business students at a single western Canadian university were surveyed to gain insight into what motivates or prevents them from participating in international co-op and exchange.
Eligibility requirements for work-integrated learning programs: Exploring the implications of using grade point averages for student participation
Louise A. Dunn, Mark A. Schier, Janet E. Hiller, Ian H. Harding
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(3), 298-308
Eligibility, WIL, criteria, equity, participation, inclusion, student, grade point average, GPA
Educational institutions often specify eligibility criteria for student participation in Work-Integrated Learning (WIL) programs including paid industry placement experiences designed to improve student learning and employability outcomes. The criteria may be based solely on the completion of a preliminary stage of course work or include additional academic quality performance measures. Although it is acknowledged that eligibility criteria are required to assist in determining student preparedness for the industry experience, this paper argues that imposing academic quality criteria such as credit or distinction grade averages, in addition to course work completion, may be at odds with the overall objectives of WIL. Using the example of a 12 month paid industry placement program within the health and science discipline areas, this paper examines the implications of adopting this type of quality criterion for the three key WIL stakeholder groups: the university, employers and students.
Interns proactively shaping their organizational experience: The mediating role of leader member exchange
Philip Rose
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(3), 309-323
University to work transition, proactive personality, leader-member exchange, internships
Proactive dispositions are increasingly becoming a prerequisite qualification for employment across occupations, whilst concurrently internships are increasingly viewed by employers and graduates as a preferred entry point into a range of professional occupations. To date, however, these two contemporary trends have not been examined simultaneously. This study investigates how intern proactive dispositions interact with intern-supervisor exchange relationships, to produce key internship outcomes. The study collected two waves of longitudinal data from both interns and supervisors, representing 303 intern-supervisor dyads (n=303). The findings indicate that an intern’s proactive dispositions predicted high quality intern-supervisor exchange, and consequently this exchange mediated the influence of intern proactive personality on both intern in-role performance and intern-satisfaction. These findings highlight important parallels between interns and newcomer employee’s experiences of organizational life, and advocate the reconceptualization of internships from a host organization perspective as an employee recruitment and selection context.
Exploring cooperative education students' performance and success: A case study
Colleen Nevison, T. Judene Pretti
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(3), 325-335
Cooperative education, case study, student success, performance, organizational characteristics
The success of cooperative education programs depends upon the mutual benefit of the student and supervisor. This study looks to investigate how the workplace environment, including the support and the requirements of the role, can impact the performance and productivity of the co-op student, resulting in greater outcomes for both the student and the supervisor. Through a qualitative case study, the experiences of the cooperative education (co-op) student workers were explored within a specific co-op workplace that has consistently produced high levels of student performance. Interviews conducted with the student workers of the workplace of interest revealed useful insight into how student performance can be improved. Emerging themes such as self-determination theory, organizational commitment, and mentorship were explored with the aim of making recommendations that may be applicable across co-op workplaces. A model to describe the findings is proposed.
Issue 2
Understanding the needs of all the stakeholders: Issues of training and preparation for health work students and their clinical educators
Louise Horstmanshof, Keri Moore
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(2), 93-100
Multiple stakeholders, work-based literacy, WIL, clinical placement, expectations, agency
Work-integrated learning (WIL) is vital for preparing health-work students for practice. WIL activities have multiple stakeholders, each with their own set of expectations and requirements, both explicit and implicit. Negotiations to provide these learning experiences for students happen at many levels and those at the coalface are often unaware of the different expectations of the various stakeholders. By developing their ability to consider multiple stakeholder perspectives, health students and their clinical educators are in a strong position to maximize the benefits, limit the disadvantages, and increase the satisfaction of the multiple stakeholders. Social awareness, communication skills and relationship development and maintenance hold the key to building capacity to manage the WIL experiences more skillfully, leading to better outcomes for all. This discussion paper examines an example from the field that drew attention to the need for a better understanding of the needs of all stakeholders.
Sharing the load: Understanding the roles of academics and host supervisors in work-integrated learning
Theresa Winchester-Seeto, Anna Rowe, Jacqueline Mackaway
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(2), 101-118
Roles and responsibilities, stakeholders, supervision, qualitative research, work-integrated learning
Student supervision is a key factor underpinning the success of work-integrated learning programs. Supervisory responsibilities can be shared across a number of stakeholders including university staff and host/workplace supervisors. While there have been attempts to understand the roles played by each of these stakeholders, little research has focused on what each understands about the role of others. University staff and host supervisors (N=57) were interviewed about their own role and that of other stakeholders. Findings reveal that while there is reasonable consensus within each stakeholder group about their own roles, perceptions about the roles of others are mismatched in some fundamental areas. There also appear to be intersecting and complementary roles, which remain largely unexplored and accounted for in research and theory to date. This study is unique in bringing together the perceptions of multiple stakeholders to explore ideas about supervision. Implications for theory, practice and future research are discussed.
Examining the effects of perceived relevance and work-related subjective well-being on individual performance for co-op students
Dave Drewery, T. Judene Pretti, Sage Barclay
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(2), 119-134
Co-op, relevance, well-being, performance
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between co-op students' perceived relevance of their work term, work-related subjective well-being (SWB), and individual performance at work. Data were collected using a survey of co-op students (n = 1,989) upon completion of a work term. Results of regression analyses testing a conditional process model show that perceived relevance has a significant indirect influence on performance through work-related SWB. These findings point to the significant role of connections between students' post-secondary studies and their work. Students who see a greater degree of connection between the work term and post-secondary are more likely to feel satisfied and engaged at work, and in turn are more likely to perform well. These results and their implications for co-op program administrators and organizations that employ co-op students are discussed.
Exploration of a reflective practice rubric
Karen Young, Kimberley James, Sue Noy
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(2), 135-147
Rubric, assessment, placement, reflective practice, WIL, reliability
Work integrated learning (WIL) educators using reflective practice to facilitate student learning require a set of standards that works within the traditional assessment frame of Higher Education, to ascertain the level at which reflective practice has been demonstrated. However, there is a paucity of tested assessment instruments that provide guidance for measuring student demonstrations of reflective learning in WIL. This paper provides a preliminary exploration (pilot) of the reliability and validity of a WIL placement rubric for grading reflective practice across an alternate WIL placement-like context, for the purpose of testing the potential transferability of the rubric. The study supports earlier research that suggests that inter-assessor shared understanding of standards are crucial for achieving reliable and valid results. The rubric's value is in providing a foundation set of standards that can support WIL educators to expedite discussions for developing and using assessment tools grounded in reflective practice theory for grading student achievement across a range of WIL placement-like learning contexts.
Work-integrated learning process in tourism training programs in Vietnam: Voices of education and industry
Cam Thi Hong Khuong
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(2), 149-161
Vietnam, work-integrated learning, tourism training programs, industry involvement, internships
This paper addresses the work-integrated learning (WIL) initiative embedded in selected tourism training programs in Vietnam. The research was grounded on the framework of stakeholder ethos. Drawing on tourism training curriculum analysis and interviews with lecturers, institutional leaders, industry managers and internship supervisors, this study shows that WIL initiatives exist in the tourism training programs under examinations with various levels of industry engagement at both on-campus and off-campus stages. However, the links between the triad of WIL stakeholders – institutions, companies and students – under the impact of the Vietnamese Government policies in the context of higher education and vocational education and training are appraised as lacking, superficial and unsustainable. Consequently, this WIL process barely equips the graduates with the required knowledge and skills to satisfy the demands of the industry.
Learning through participation as a mass collaboration
Justine Lloyd, Maria Amigo, Nanditha Hettitantri
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(2), 163-174
Learning through participation, collaboration, online learning technologies, communication, grounded theory
This article highlights the central role of collaboration in higher education programs which involve students in 'learning through participation' (LTP). It reports the findings of a project that began with the intention of exploring the range and applicability of online technologies used for enhancing collaboration between the three main groups (students, partner organizations, and unit conveners) in a university-based LTP initiative. A grounded theory approach led us to open up the research focus to investigate important themes of collaboration highlighted by participants. This centrality of collaboration overshadowed our initial concern with online-based technologies, which were found not to be directly correlated with collaboration. We discuss implications of these findings and tease out important distinctions between co-ordination (of activities), communication (of information and between social actors) and collaboration. We discuss the implications of these distinct factors for teaching and learning through participation.
Exploring differences in industry supervisors' ratings of student performance on WIL placements and the relative importance of skills: Does remuneration matter?
Lisa Milne, Julia Caldicott
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(2), 175-186
Work-integrated learning, competencies, WIL assessment, workplace assessor ratings, paid/unpaid placement
Assessment in work integrated learning (WIL) programs typically involves workplace supervisors rating student performance against criteria based on employability skills. Yet investigations of differences in employer ratings that may impact on student outcomes are rare. This study reports on a pilot study that examined supervisor evaluations of the performance of tourism and hospitality management students undertaking a mandatory capstone internship, either paid or non-remunerated. The descriptive and exploratory statistical analysis examines data derived from over one hundred supervisor evaluation forms. A few significant differences in supervisor ratings of performance in paid and unpaid groups and in the relative importance of skills were found. Overall, the study affirmed that supervisors generally rate students highly on all skills. The skills that students are prepared for and assessed on in our WIL program were found to be of high value to local hosts. Implications for debates regarding supervisory input into assessing student performance are explored.
Reflections and experiences of student paramedics undertaking international work-integrated learning placements
Paul Simpson, Liz Thyer, Ben van Nugteren, Glen Mitchell, Sarah Werner
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(2), 187-196
Paramedicine, work-integrated learning, international, qualitative
International work-integrated learning (WIL) is increasingly common in health-related programs in Australian universities. Paramedicine programs are beginning to explore international WIL in line with the globalization of paramedicine as a profession and the national higher education emphasis on outward bound learning experiences. Using qualitative methods, the present study reports the experiences of undergraduate paramedicine students undertaking inaugural WIL placements in either South Africa or New Zealand. The placements, of a 3-week duration, used a placement model that did not include an accompanying academic from the host institution. Key themes to emerge include appropriateness of WIL location, timing of international WIL within an undergraduate program, and the potential to be overwhelmed by the combination of an intense early clinical experience and demands of managing oneself on an unaccompanied placement experience. This research provides valuable information to assist development of international WIL programs in paramedicine courses and other clinical health disciplines.
Designing work-integrated learning placements that improve student employability: Six facets of the curriculum that matter
Calvin Smith, Sonia Ferns, Leoni Russell
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(2), 197-211
Employability, work-integrated learning, curriculum design, quantitative methods
Research into work-integrated learning continues to show through a variety of small-scale and anecdotal studies, various positive impacts on student learning, work-readiness, personal and cognitive development and other outcomes. Seldom are these research findings strongly generalizable because of such factors as small sample sizes, discipline-specific case attributes, and qualitative approaches that seek richness of detail rather than generalizability of findings. Drawing on a sample of more than 3000 students, the study reported here explored the following questions: What curriculum factors can be validly measured to operationalize work-integrated learning curricula design? What measures validly operationalize the concept of 'employment readiness'? and What predictive relationships exist between these two sets of measures? Measures are based on students self-reporting of both curriculum characteristics and employability skill acquisition. Findings indicate that robust measures of both curriculum factors and employment-readiness factors are possible and that the curriculum factors are associated with students' employment readiness outcomes.
Issue 1
Curating work-integrated learning: 'Taking care' of disciplinary heritage, local institutional contexts and wellbeing via the open educational resources movement
Maree Donna Simpson, Teresa Swist
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(1), 1-8
Work-integrated learning, open educational resources movement, curation, slow innovation, capability approach, disciplinary heritage, wellbeing, ethics
Work-integrated learning (WIL) has become commonplace in many higher education institutions across Australia. Similarly, there has been rapid integration of digital technologies for supporting teaching, learning and assessment in this domain. In the rush to address associated challenges within the sector – such as massification, limited placements, resourcing issues and staff turnover – the time to pause, take care of and meaningfully build upon WIL practices within this new digital context is often bypassed. This paper explores the role of the open educational resources (OER) movement for not only protecting and promoting the practices which practitioners care about in WIL – but also in shaping innovation that is mindful of local institutional contexts, disciplinary heritage and wellbeing. The notion of 'curating work-integrated learning' is introduced to critically reflect upon the OER movement via the lenses of multidimensionality, multimodality and mindfulness. Despite the quick turnover of technologies and shifts in the global educational market, there is a need for 'slow innovation' which invites a more ethical vision for shaping the future of higher education in the digital age.
Are students who do not participate in work-integrated learning (WIL) disadvantaged? Differences in work self-efficacy between WIL and non-WIL students
Carleen M. Thompson, Lyndel Bates, Merrelyn Bates
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(1), 9-20
Work self-efficacy, internship, work-integrated learning, role expectations, self-efficacy, practicum
If work-integrated learning (WIL) improves students' work self-efficacy (WSE), are students who do not participate in WIL disadvantaged? This study answers this question by examining differences in WSE between final-year criminal justice students at Griffith University (Brisbane, Australia) who elected to undertake WIL and those who did not. Contrary to expectations, WIL students did not report higher WSE upon the completion of a work placement compared to non-WIL students. Further investigations revealed pre-existing differences between the two groups, whereby students who elected to undertake WIL had significantly lower levels of WSE prior to placement than students who chose not to undertake a placement. These students were also significantly younger and less likely to have had prior criminal justice work experience. Findings highlight the importance of offering WIL as an elective to give students with lower levels of WSE the opportunity to develop greater confidence in managing the professional workplace.
Knowledge and skill competency values of an undergraduate university managed cooperative internship program: A case study in design education
David Barbarash
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(1), 21-30
Design education, cooperative internship, architectural education, curricular evaluation
Students from the Purdue University landscape architecture program undergo a year-long managed cooperative internship between their junior and senior years of enrollment. During this paid internship students experience the realities of a professional design office outside of the protection of the academic classroom. Through surveys of faculty members and students, some areas showed significant differences in student perceptions of abilities compared with what faculty members thought they had taught. The significant areas are those that the professionally accredited Landscape Architecture Body of Knowledge describes as not being vital until a practitioner is ready for licensure, suggesting that in a managed cooperative internship some students have with more advanced knowledge compared to students without such assistance.
The role of work placement in engineering students' academic performance
Aaron Simon Blicblau, Tracey Louise Nelson, Kurosh Dini
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(1), 31-43
Industry based learning, grades, capstone, projects, academic results, GPA
Engineering graduates without industrial experience may find that employment is difficult to obtain immediately after completing their studies. This study investigates the impact of two arrangements of work experiences; short term (over 12 weeks, STP) and long- term (over 52 weeks, IBL) on academic grades. This study involved 240 undergraduate mechanical engineering students. Results from the study indicated that students who spent time on work integrated learning or IBL in their penultimate year of their engineering course obtained better grades than those who did not undertake such a placement. The findings of this work have highlighted the relevance of work experience to improved academic grades for engineering students. An additional outcome was that some students were offered ongoing employment at the conclusion of their placement. Limitations of the study include factors external to the industry based work experience which may influence student grades. It is proposed that tertiary institutes embed a lengthy work experience program within the engineering academic syllabus.
A new model of clinical education to increase student placement availability: The capacity development facilitator model
Michele Fairbrother, Madelyn Nicole, Julia Blackford, Srivalli Vilapakkam Nagarajan, Lindy McAllister
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(1), 45-59
Capacity, innovative, sustainable, placements, facilitator, enablers, barriers, learning
This paper reports on a trial of a new model of clinical education designed to increase student clinical placement availability and address workforce constraints on supervision. The University of Sydney deployed the Capacity Development Facilitators (CDF) in selected Sydney hospitals to work with staff to expand student clinical placement opportunities by identifying enablers, barriers and stressors of clinical placements and collaboratively developing solutions, provide organizational and learning support and foster opportunities for interprofessional learning. A mixed methods study was undertaken collecting data from physiotherapy students and their clinical educators (CE). At completion of placement students and CEs completed a survey. This was analyzed for themes about placement structure, productivity, barriers, enablers, stressors and support. Preliminary findings suggest the CDF model increases capacity, provides robust learning experiences and satisfaction with placements from the hospital, university staff and students' perspectives.
A behavior focused assessment of co-op performance: A comparison of co-op and non-co-op graduating students
Antoine Pennaforte
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(1), 61-74
Work-role performance, WIL, team, assessment, cooperative education, comparison workplace
This paper investigates how student-workers' performance can be assessed through the notion of work-role performance, on the basis of three behavioral-related dimensions (proficiency, adaptivity, and proactivity), and proposes a definition of performance prior to graduation. By taking into account the accumulation of work experience, this article investigates first whether 1,310 cooperative education (co-op) students develop proficient, adaptive, and proactive performance behaviors toward the task and the team in the workplace and test the effect of the accumulation of work-experience of three cohorts. Second, it examines whether this work-role performance was different between 547 co-op students and 617 non-co-op students both with four months of work experience. Results showed that only team performance proficiency significantly increased with the accumulation of work experience for co-op students. Results did not show significant difference between co-op and non-co-op students with regard to work-role performance' scores.
A review of the situation of service-learning in higher education in Spain
Héctor Opazo, Pilar Aramburuzabala, Rosario Cerrillo
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(1), 75-91
Service-learning, grounded-theory, higher education, qualitative research
As the prevalence of service-learning (S-L) within higher education institutions grows across the globe, it makes sense to explore, describe and discuss the recent situation in Spain. As a relatively new pedagogy, S-L has gained prominence in Spanish higher education since its emergence in the early 2000s, and it is increasingly used. This article analyses S-L in higher education in Spain with the purpose of understanding the expression of this promising teaching strategy. The paper is based on documentary analysis of key documents from the last official conference of the S-L that took place in Bilbao (2013). Data was analyzed using thematic analysis and grounded theory, with Atlas.Ti. The process of data analysis was based on a thematic framework of three categories: [1] S-L University Qualifications, [2] S-L Institutionalization status, and [3] S-L Possibilities and Positive effects. This analysis can deepen understanding of the S-L pedagogy, improve practice and create a framework for future research.
Volume 16 (2015)
Issue 4
Analyzing student and employer satisfaction with cooperative education through multiple data sources
Yuheng Helen Jiang, Sally Wai Yin Lee, Lukasz Golab
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(4), 225-240
Data analytics, student placements, employer evaluations, student evaluations, engineering, cooperative education
This paper reports on the analysis of three years research of undergraduate cooperative work term postings and employer and employee evaluations. The objective of the analysis was to determine the factors affecting student and employer success and satisfaction with the work-integrated learning experience. It was found that students performed better and found co-op placements with an increasing emphasis on leadership in their senior years; however, students rated their first employer the highest. Furthermore, senior students were more successful than junior students in work placements abroad, and extended work terms at the same employer did not increase student satisfaction.
The Australian Collaborative Education Network student scholarship for work-integrated learning 2010 - 2014
Keri Moore, Sonia Ferns, Deborah Peach
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(4), 241-254
Work-integrated learning, practice-based learning, access and equity, Australia
The increasing emphasis on embedding work-integrated learning (WIL) in the higher education curriculum has impacted on teaching and learning approaches. While the benefits of incorporating experiential learning in the student experience are recognized by all stakeholders, additional costs incurred by students have not been identified. At the same time the Australian Federal Government's review of base funding has recommended a detailed assessment of the costs of providing student placements across all disciplines - in particular health and education. Data collected from over a thousand Australian Collaborative Education Network (ACEN) student scholarship applicants indicate travel, accommodation, food, clothing, equipment and loss of income are of major concern especially for students on mandatory, lengthy placements involving relocation. We present a range of data from the five-years of the scholarship to inform discussion of costs from the student perspective which highlighted major concerns. The implications for ACEN are described and recommendations made to improve practice.
Supporting student development through a cooperative education coaching program
Lisa Armstrong, Nancy Waite, Meagen Rosenthal
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(4), 255-265
Coach, mentor, cooperative education, student, reflective practitioner, pharmacist
Uptake of new scopes of practice by pharmacists has been slow and inconsistent, which the literature suggests may be related to disconnects between pharmacists' established professional identities and the identities needed to adopt these new practices. This study evaluated the use of coaches to help pharmacy students during their cooperative education work terms develop professional identities more aligned with the new scopes of practice. In this longitudinal crosssectional survey, trained pharmacist coaches met individually and in groups with students in the intervention arm of the study. Students and coaches in the intervention arm completed reflective questions and student intervention and control groups completed a self-assessment survey. Reflective comments indicated that both students and coaches identified student gains in career and professional planning, workplace navigation skills, ability to reflect on professional development topics, and contextualizing classroom learning within practice. Work-integrated learning combined with coaching can contribute to students' career and professional identity development.
Beyond regular employment contexts: The transferability of pay, satisfaction and performance linkages to internships
Philip Rose
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(4), 267-278
Internships, job satisfaction, pay level, in-role performance
Internship participation has undergone rapid expansion over the last three decades, to the point where today many interns and host organizations regard internships as the preferred pathway into entry-level professional positions. However, organizational research has largely neglected the investigation of internships as an employment context, thus a majority of established predictive relationships in the workplace remain untested within the context of internships, including, fundamental workplace causal relationships between pay, performance and satisfaction. This study collected data at three time intervals from 303 intern-supervisor matched pairs (n=606), to establish the transferability of these relationships to the unique employment setting of internships. Findings indicated that although payment level influenced intern satisfaction it did not play a significant role in influencing interns' in-role performance, whereas internship satisfaction did positively impact intern performance.
Integration of practice experiences into the Allied Health Curriculum: Curriculum and pedagogic considerations before, during and after work-integrated learning experiences
Srivalli Vilapakkam Nagarajan, Lindy McAllister
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(4), 279-290
Allied health, work-integrated learning, placement, clinical education, integration, practice experiences
Work-integrated learning (WIL) is an essential component of all allied health university courses. In allied health, learning that occurs during WIL experiences and the relationship between academic and WIL experiences are not well understood. Good integration of WIL experiences into the allied health curriculum is key to realizing the full educational worth of WIL experiences and ensuring good student learning outcomes. This paper will use Billett's theoretical framework (Billett, 2009) for the educational value of integrating practice experiences with academic experiences and discuss how his framework could be applied to improve integration of WIL experiences in allied health. Curriculum and pedagogic considerations for allied health academics that need to be considered prior to, during and after the WIL experiences are discussed. The challenges to the integration of academic and WIL experiences that occur inside and outside universities are described. Suggestions and recommendations for better integration of academic and WIL experiences before, during and after placements are provided.
Enhancing students' self-efficacy in making positive career decisions
Gregory Reddan
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(4), 291-300
Exercise science, self-efficacy, career decisions, career development learning, work-integrated learning
Field Project A is an elective course in the Bachelor of Exercise Science program at Griffith University and includes elements of both career development learning and work-integrated learning. This paper aims to determine the effects of the learning activities and assessment items developed for the course on students' self-efficacy in making positive career decisions. Prior to commencing a work experience placement, workshops were conducted based on the SOAR model (Kumar, 2007), including activities related to the development of the first three phases of the model - selfawareness, opportunity awareness and aspirations. The career decision self-efficacy scale (CDSS) and a questionnaire were administered prior to and on completion of the course. Comparison of scores demonstrated significant differences in relation to students' confidence in self-appraisal, occupational information, goal selection, planning and problemsolving. Students perceived the course increased their awareness of personal strengths and weaknesses related to employability and their knowledge of specific occupations.
A lifespan perspective on cooperative education learning: A grounded theory
Patricia Linn
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(4), 301-326
Cooperative education, lifespan development, qualitative analysis, grounded theory, learning process, learning outcome
This qualitative study sits at the intersection of two trends in vocational education. The first trend is a narrative approach to understanding cooperative education learning; the second is a movement away from career development theories toward the view that individuals use work experiences to help construct their lives. Both trends view learning as situated in social contexts and suggest narratives to discover the meanings individuals make of work experiences. A lifespan approach using interviews at or near retirement was employed to add a long developmental trajectory to the study of how cooperative education learning served one group of students across decades. A grounded theory of cooperative education learning was discovered through analysis of two sets of archived data. The theory explored the phenomenon via causal conditions, attributes, strategies, and consequences. The lifespan approach supports other literature in questioning some current practices in cooperative education and emphasizes some of the important contributions that co-op makes to long-term learning.
Student-led services in a hospital aged care temporary stay unit: Sustaining student placement capacity and physiotherapy service provisions
Madelyn Nicole, Michele Fairbrother, Srivalli Vilapakkam Nagarajan, Julia Blackford, Lyndal Sheepway, Merrolee Penman, Lindy McAllister
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(4), 327-342
Clinical education; student-led services; capacity; university-hospital partnerships
Through a collaborative university-hospital partnership, a student-led service model (SLS-model) was implemented to increase student placement capacity within a physiotherapy department of a 150 bed Sydney hospital. This study investigates the perceived barriers and enablers to increasing student placement capacity through student-led services (SLS) and the outcomes for hospital stakeholders and the university. Using mixed methods design, investigators interviewed nine clinical educators and surveyed thirty-four students over a ten month period to identify perceived barriers and enablers, clinical supervision models, experiences, support, and strategic innovations to increase student placement capacity. Content analysis of the interviews and quantitative visual analogue scores were statistically analyzed. Results demonstrate that student placement capacity increased by 212.5% at this hospital. Barriers and enablers included: student and clinical educator characteristics; placement support; workload and SLS-model context. Despite the perceived barriers challenging SLS implementation, enablers facilitated the SLS-model to increasehealthcare service provision and increase student placement capacity for physiotherapy students at this hospital.
The impact of an authentic, simulated learning activity on student preparedness for work-integrated learning
Kelli Richmond, Kieva Richards, Kellie Britt
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(4), 343-354
Simulation, occupational therapy, work-integrated learning, authentic learning
Student preparation for work-integrated learning using simulated learning experiences is an under researched field in occupational therapy. In 2013 the Deakin University occupational therapy degree introduced a simulated learning experience for students aimed at preparing them for work-integrated learning experiences. The session gave students an opportunity to practice fundamental skills of the discipline. A Likert scale survey was written and critically reviewed by the authors. Students rated the extent to which they felt that they could communicate effectively, build rapport, safely transfer clients, apply occupational health and safety principles and write case notes, prior to and after participation in the simulated learning experience. A statistically significant improvement was found for all outcomes measured. Students also reported improved confidence and valued opportunities to practice and receive feedback on skills. The results demonstrate that participation in a simulated learning activity improves confidence and skills in arange of areas that are relevant to work-integrated learning placement.
Issues and strategies for establishing work-integrated learning for multidisciplinary teams: A focus on degrees in sustainability
Robyn Fay Wilson
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(4), 355-366
Multidisciplinary, teams, sustainability degree, work-integrated learning, placements
This study was conducted to identify challenges and potential strategies to streamline work-integrated learningplacements for multidisciplinary teams of students undertaking degrees in sustainability. Face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire were conducted with 15 academics and senior university staff, from four universities in Australia, who had extensive experience conducting WIL programs for undergraduate students. Key findings were that placing small teams of students was uncommon but partnerships with established specific professional vocational degrees are feasible. Management of multidisciplinary teams require four components: a central portal with a designated person(s) to coordinate and oversee all WIL programs; a university committee with representatives from each school and a chair that rotates between schools to vet WIL projects; a generic work-ready skills program that commences in the first year; and a project-based WIL placement with students self-mentoring and host supervisors providing generic supervision.
Issue 3 (Special Issue)
Special Issue: Work integrated learning: Building capacity. Papers from the Australian Collaborative Education Network Annual Conference 2014.

Guest Editor: Keri Moore
Learning through work: How can a narrative approach to evaluation build students' capacity for resilience?
Susan Mate, Maureen Ryan
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(3), 153-161
Resilience, narrative analysis, professional identity, work-integrated learning
Some professionals have a conscious purpose-driven 'professional identity' and others forge an identity over time and through various work experiences. This research draws on the narratives professionals at different life and career stages shared about their professional development. The findings highlight the importance attributed to resilience, among broader themes associated with building professional identity. Vignettes of the stories told by two of the participants are presented here to highlight ways in which resilience can be acquired, for example, by building networks and being adaptable. It is proposed that narrative analysis techniques could be used to build students' awareness and understanding of resilience when participating in work-integrated learning (WIL) experiences. In the same way that a resilience discourse emerged in the narratives of successful professionals, introducing the notion and language of work-related resilience to students may improve their chances of having successful, fulfilling and enduring careers.
Unintended outcomes of university-community partnerships: Building organizational capacity with PACE International partners
Kate Lloyd, Lindie Clark, Laura Hammersley, Michaela Baker, Felicity Rawlings-Sanaei, Emily D'ath
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(3), 163-173
Capacity building, community partners, mutually beneficial learning, international service-learning
Professional and Community Engagement (PACE) at Macquarie University provides experiential opportunities for students and staff to contribute to more just, inclusive and sustainable societies by engaging in activities with partner organizations. PACE International offers a range of opportunities with partners overseas. Underpinning PACE is a commitment to mutually beneficial learning and engagement. To align with this commitment, PACE-related research engages partner perspectives and those of students and academics. The dearth of scholarly research on partner perspectives of community engagement (Bringle, Clayton & Price, 2009) underscores this imperative. Drawing on interviews and focus groups with partner representatives this article examines some of the apparently unexpected benefits of engagement with PACE that community partners report have contributed to their improved organizational capacity. We conclude by speculating that what can be perceived by universities as unexpected and unplanned by-products of student engagement, may actually be intended and strategically planned outcomes of community partners.
The integration of study and work-integrated learning experience through the sequential, embedded completion of tertiary qualifications
Patricia Whannell, Judy Humphries, Robert Whannell, Kim Usher
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(3), 175-184
WIL, work integrated learning, dual-sector degree, Australian Quality Framework, AQF
A number of different models have been developed to integrate both Vocational Education and Training (VET) and university study with a view to producing work-ready graduates. This paper describes one joint initiative which allows students to integrate their theoretical study and WIL experience by supporting a sequential, embedded accomplishment of qualifications across both VET and university with a single higher education enrolment. Students in the dual-sector degrees have welcomed the skill-based practical work involved with VET education while learning the theoretical concepts of their university education. The need for a more seamless engagement with VET and university study is becoming more urgent and there are a large number of possibilities to explore, particularly relating to the differences in processes and philosophies between the VET and university sectors. This paper identifies some of the key issues and proposes some solutions.
Work-integrated learning in Vietnam: Perspectives of intern work supervisors
Christine Bilsland, Helga Nagy
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(3), 185-198
Vietnam, internships, transnational education, work-integrated learning, work supervisors
This paper addresses work-integrated learning program issues from the perspective of work supervisors of interns from a foreign university in an offshore market environment -Vietnam. Universities expanding their markets overseas must research all relevant aspects of the local environment when making operational expansion decisions, and continue research activities on an ongoing basis to ensure that program elements meet evolving local stakeholder requirements. At this stage in Vietnam, collaboration and communication between higher education and industry is rare. Therefore, this paper investigated work supervisors' perceptions of the university's WIL program, and their views on their own role in the intern's learning process. Their feedback about how internship processes can be improved can help guide the foreign university in Vietnam (FUV) to continue to deliver effective work integrated learning in Vietnam, as well as offer insights useful for other universities running WIL courses in overseas locations.
Enhancing capacity for success in the creative industries: Undergraduate student reflections on the implementation of work-integrated learning strategies
Ryan Daniel, Leah Daniel
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(3), 199-209
Artists, creative industries, internships, networking, work-integrated learning
This article reflects ongoing research-led teaching in the area of creative industries in higher education. Specifically it reports on key work-integrated learning strategies designed to better prepare graduates for the employment sector. The creative industries sector is complex and competitive, characterized by non-linear career paths driven by the individual. Following contextualization of the key issues, a core creative industries subject and curriculum is described, which requires students to engage directly with industry practitioners via internships or case studies. In order to interrogate the impact of these activities, a sample of final reflections as well as formal student feedback on the subject were analyzed in order to draw out key themes in relation to student learning and understanding. Analysis of these data propose that direct engagement with practitioners assists students in developing new knowledge of the capacities they will require for a sustainable career.
Where there is a WIL there is a way: Using a critical reflective approach to enhance work readiness
Dallas Wingrove, Michelle Turner
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(3), 211-222
Graduate outcomes, project management, reflective practice, work integrated learning, work readiness
Creating authentic learning experiences that prepare students for their future work in an ever-changing workforce represents a key challenge in higher education. One key way to enable the integration of learning and work is to foster students' capacity for critical reflection and reflexive thinking. This paper seeks to contribute to knowledge of how to foster the integration of learning and work and presents a case-study of a work integrated learning curriculum intervention within the discipline of project management. We explore how to authentically integrate learning and work by creating learning for students that deepens and broadens their critical understandings of their future profession and role as professional practitioners. We apply thematic analysis to students' reflective journals to explore their shifting perceptions of professional practice, and discuss how these findings may be applied to more authentically foster students' preparation for professional practice.
Building capacity for work-readiness: Bridging the cognitive and affective domains
Suniti Bandaranaike, John Willison
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(3), 223-233
Work integrated learning, employability, cognitive domain, affective domain, work-readiness, work skills development
Teaching for work-integrated learning (WIL) competency is largely directed at delivering knowledge based cognitive skills with little emphasis on affective skills. This study looks at empirical evidence of WIL students through their understanding of the cognitive and affective domains. The research is based on a validated employability framework, the work skills development framework (Bandaranaike & Willison, 2009), to assess core employability competencies of 138 WIL students and feedback from 111 employers. Statistical analysis was used to compare variations in the application of cognitive and affective skills. The study concluded that whilst overall students had limited understanding of affective skills, employers emphasized the need for greater affective skills in the workplace. In order to unlock the potential of the cognitive skills and for a deeper understanding of affective skills, this research introduces the concept of emotional work-readiness as a pathway for building work-readiness capacity.
Issue 2 (Special Issue)
Special Issue: Building an excellent foundation of research. Based on papers presented at the WACE Research Symposium, University West, Trollhattan, Sweden, 2014.

Guest Editor: Maureen Drysdale
Building an excellent foundation for research: Challenges and current research needs
Karsten E. Zegwaard
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(2), 89-99
Research-informed education, research gaps, negative findings, research opportunities
The delivery of research-informed education is a fundamental principle held by universities and is a principle that work-integrated education (WIL) should not be exempt from. In the 1980s and 1990s, critical reviews of the WIL literature suggested WIL research required significant development. Since these reviews were conducted a significant, well-developed body of literature has formed and increasingly WIL models of delivery are relying on research findings to inform program design. However, despite these successes, significant challenges and research gaps still exist. Authors in this APJCE special issue have given attention to a number of areas that present as challenges. The area of negative and neglected research findings are highlighted and the reexamining the nature of the relationship between the student and workplace supervisor has been discussed. A model of enabling transformative learning is presented and an investigation of the influence of WIL experiences on undergraduate student study direction choices has been reported. Other areas in need of further research attention are also discussed.
Researchers' reflections on what is missing from workintegrated learning research
Patricia M. Rowe
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(2), 101-107
Research, negative results, jobs, industrial psychology, work-integrated learning
This paper deals with the lack of attention to negative findings that has been found in cooperative education research and with issues that have been ignored by work integrated learning researchers. A review of the literature, an informal survey, and instances from the writer's experience provided many examples of negative results and under-reported findings. An example of how negative or unexpected results might be incorporated into research and practice is presented. It is argued that a failure to consider the work or job component of WIL programs may be responsible for this neglect of issues and negative results.
Exploring stakeholders' perspectives of the influences on student learning in cooperative education
Jenny Fleming
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(2), 109-119
Workplace learning, supervision, cooperative education, work-integrated learning
Fundamental to cooperative education is a philosophical commitment to learning through the experience of work. The workplace can be viewed as a social environment and provides a context for learning that is very different from that provided within a university. The aim of this research was, through an interpretive case study, to explore the influences on student learning in a sport cooperative education context. Learning in the workplace was influenced by the direct guidance and support given by industry supervisors, as well as the attitude of the student. Academic supervisors facilitated the development of reflective practice and helped students to integrate the knowledge gained in both the university and workplace environments. Yet, through developing relationships and social interactions with workplace colleagues, students were able to learn about the culture and values and contributed towards deepening their understanding of what it means to be a professional in the sport and recreation industry.
Flipping the academy: Is learning from outside the classroom turning the university inside out?
Ruth Helyer, Helen Corkill
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(2), 121-135
Experiential learning, work-based learning, flipped classroom, graduate employability, cooperative learning, work-integrated learning
This paper explores the idea that the variety of approaches to experiential learning, and the diversity of ways in which learning is accessed and facilitated, is contributing to the conventional world of the university being turned upsidedown. Work-based and experiential learning acknowledge learning derived from outside the classroom; similarly, but differently, the flipped classroom encourages learning to take place elsewhere. This paper examines whether changes to the traditional locus of higher education delivery and to the production, storage and dissemination of knowledge represent philosophical challenges to the status of the university itself. To make formative connections between learning that is taking place through work, experiential and flipped learning, a small-scale research study was undertaken across two English universities. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data derived from deskbased research, electronic survey and semi-structured interviews, the paper demonstrates a range of understandings and applications of experiential learning.
Exploring conditions for transformative learning in workintegrated education
Norah McRae
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(2), 137-144
Transformative learning, reflection, mediation, socio-cultural, integration
A qualitative study was undertaken that explored the conditions for transformative learning in cooperative education as a form of work-integrated learning (WIL), towards the development of a theoretical model. Four case studies were analyzed based on interviews with WIL students, supervisors and their co-op coordinator. The findings revealed that the enablers most involved in contributing to transformative learning were: opportunities for work and learning, a supportive environment, student capabilities, co-workers, supervisors, and assessment and reflection practices. Furthermore, the integration of these transformative outcomes into the WIL academic program or workplace was dependent upon the time and value given to transformative processes, institutional requirements and a positive emotional environment. The implications of these findings are that WIL theoretical models include considerations of: perspective, socio-cultural context, dialectic and mediated processes, time and creating a positive emotional space to support the critical reflection necessary for transformative learning outcomes. Furthermore, adopting a view of WIL as an interaction between two systems opens up possibilities for innovation and renewal in our WIL programs and workplaces.
How often do they change their minds and does work-integrated learning play a role? An examination of 'major changers' and career certainty in higher education
Maureen T. B. Drysdale, Natalie Frost, Margaret L. McBeath
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(2), 145-152
Work-integrated learning, cooperative education, major satisfaction, major changers, career certainty
This project examined the role of cooperative education (co-op) in changing majors and career certainty in Canadian university students. Career certainty scores were collected using an online questionnaire from students in both cooperative education and non-cooperative education. The frequency with which students changed their major and their reasons for doing so were also collected. Results revealed that while non-co-op students changed their major significantly more often than their non-co-op peers, they did not differ in terms of career certainty. The two primary reasons cited by non-co-op students for changing majors were interest and impact on career. It is recommended that future research expand on this study to determine if the practical experience gained from co-op provides students with the real world practice they need to connect their classroom learning to their chosen career. Implications for the findings are discussed.
Issue 1
Parliamentary internships for rural and regional students
Belinda Beattie, Dan Riley
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(1), 1-11
Work-integrated learning, WIL, internship, cooperative learning, university, parliament, rural, regional
This paper reports on a work-integrated learning (WIL) internship program: a partnership between the Australian University of New England (UNE) and the New South Wales (NSW) Parliamentary Internship Program (PiP). In particular, it examines and proposes a tailored partnership or cooperative learning approach between university and industry with the student being central to the partnership so as to achieve the maximum fit and relevance to the environment in which the WIL operates. The paper recognizes and advances a rural-centric approach for rural and regionally based university interns in an effort to contribute to development of consensus of the WIL experience.
Student perceptions of their workplace preparedness: Making work-integrated learning more effective
Gerry Rayner, Theo Papakonstantinou
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(1), 13-24
Work-integrated learning, undergraduate work placement, self-perceived ability, work skills development, degree-career alignment
Higher education is undergoing generational transformation, as universities adapt to the needs of a 21st century workforce. This study investigated student perspectives of a work-integrated learning (WIL) placement program, firstly in relation to its longer-term worth since they had completed it, and secondly, with respect to its value regarding course relatedness and in enhancing their employability and/or workplace readiness. Participants answered a series of learning and career related questions, both immediately post-placement and six or more months later. Of three learning-related questions, students were generally positive about one and strongly endorsed the other two. Contrastingly, over time, students downplayed the initial value of their WIL with respect to the knowledge gained being relevant to their future careers. Students were in moderate to strong agreement with other career-related questions, notwithstanding concerns about their future employability. Implementation of a work skills development program is recommended to maximize the effectiveness of WIL.
Developing on-campus work-integrated learning activities: The value of integrating community and industry partners into the creative arts curriculum
Katja Fleischmann
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(1), 25-38
Creative arts education, industry integration, work placement, curriculum design, employability, work-integrated learning
Work-integrated learning (WIL) is increasingly identified as essential to helping creative arts students' transition from university into the creative industries workplace. Off-campus activities, such as work placements, play a major role in educating work-ready graduates. At the same time, increasing enrolment numbers in creative arts education put pressure on institutions, in particular on campuses in regional areas where the local creative industry sector is usually small and unable to provide enough relevant work placements. Viable alternatives were explored by investigating on-campus WIL activities in creative arts education and how to offer students the opportunity to develop work-ready skills on-campus. Consequently, community and industry partners in various roles (e.g. client, industry advisor/mentor) were directly integrated into the creative arts curriculum and trialed over a period of two years. The benefits and insights gained by students through undertaking a client-based project and contact with industry professionals were investigated and are discussed in this exploratory study.
Developing the conditions for co-op students' organizational commitment through cooperative education
Antoine Pennaforte, T. Judene Pretti
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(1), 39-51
Cooperative education, organizational commitment, perceived support, organizational socialization, longitudinal
Based in a French context, this research investigates the link between the French cooperative education (co-op) system and students' organizational commitment. Following a quasi-experimental design with a control group, in a longitudinal approach, the study focuses on under-baccalaureate, undergraduate and graduate students. Results show that in the French context, co-op is an attitudinal process able to develop students' affective organizational commitment under two conditions. The first is to build co-op as a way to socialize the co-op students with the organization. The second is to support co-op students during their studies and also after graduation. From a co-op research perspective, this study presents another model of co-op and proposes to build a link between co-op and organizational behavior and to think of co-op as an incubator for developing high performers within organizations.
Supporting placement supervision in clinical exercise physiology
Rebecca M. Sealey, Jacqueline Raymond, Herb Groeller, Kieron Rooney, Meagan Crabb, Kerrianne Watt
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(1), 53-69
Student placement, supervision, work-integrated learning, health professions, clinical exercise physiology
The continued engagement of the professional workforce as supervisors is critical for the sustainability and growth of work-integrated learning activities in university degrees. This study investigated factors that influence the willingness and ability of clinicians to continue to supervise clinical exercise physiology work-integrated learning opportunities and makes recommendations for future supervision engagement. Themes identified from a supervisor survey were: staffing and time availability; administrative processes and support; student quality, knowledge and attitudes; student learning experiences; supporting the profession; service benefit; clinical personal benefit; funding; workplace support; staff qualifications and experience; prior positive experiences; future recruitment; facilities and infrastructure; and supporting the university. The responses resulted in five key recommendations for future enhanced and sustainable placement supervision. These were: adoption of efficient supervision structures; development and use of a competency checklist; enhanced recognition of supervision; standardized placement paperwork and assessment tools; and broadening of placement scheduling.
The role of work-integrated learning in student preferences of instructional methods in an accounting curriculum
Indra Abeysekera
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(1), 71-86
Algorithm, culture, curriculum, instructional method, Sri Lanka, work-integrated learning
The role of work-integrated learning in student preferences of instructional methods is largely unexplored across the accounting curriculum. This study conducted six experiments to explore student preferences of instructional methods for learning, in six courses of the accounting curriculum that differed in algorithmic rigor, in the context of a high power distance society, Sri Lanka. Two hundred and ninety-seven accounting students attending a major Sri Lankan university took part in the study. For six courses in the curriculum, the study investigated students' preferences of traditional, interactive, and case-study-based group instructional methods. All students least preferred the traditional instructional method across all courses. All students most preferred the interactive instructional method for high algorithmic courses. However, work-integrated learning students most preferred instructional methods that differ from other students for lower algorithmic courses. The implications are outlined for an algorithmic pedagogy such as an accounting curriculum.
Book Review: The Economics of Cooperative Education: A Practioners Guide to the Theoretical Framework and Empirical Assessment of Cooperative Education (2015)
Karsten E. Zegwaard
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(1), 87-88, Book Review
Yasushi Tanaka
This book provides an economical perspective of cooperative education and work-integrated learning.
Volume 15 (2014)
Issue 4
Embedding of authentic assessment in work-integrated learning curriculum
Anna Maria Bosco, Sonia Ferns
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(4), 281-290
Authentic assessment, work-integrated learning, curriculum development, WIL practitioners
Contemporary perspectives of higher education endorse a work integrated learning (WIL) approach to curriculum content, delivery and assessment. It is agreed that authenticity in learning relates to real-world experience, however, differentiating and strategically linking WIL provision and facilitation to assessment tasks and collation of authentic student evidence is critical. Irrespective of whether authentic learning tasks can be achieved in the education or workplace settings, the imperative of why an assessment is regarded as highly or minimally authentic needs to be better understood. The literature doesn’t clearly describe such parameters for assessments, nor does comprehensive course review (CCR) use a structured framework to analyze WIL assessments in curriculum. An Authentic Assessment Framework (AAF) was designed to assist this gap in CCR and piloted at Curtin University to enable a consistent approach across programs and disciplines. This paper describes the process for developing that framework, highlighting the effectiveness in engaging WIL practitioners and informing authentic curriculum development.
Better prepared, better placement: An online resource for health students
Sandra Grace, Ross O'Neil
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(4), 291-304
Transition, practice-based education, work-integrated learning, clinical practicum, health science student education, learning contract
Despite calls for better preparation of students and supervisors for clinical placement, few dedicated pre-placement resources have been developed. The aim of this project was to design, pilot, and evaluate an online resource to prepare health students and supervisors for clinical placements. Development of an online resource was informed by the literature and results from a preliminary scoping study. The resource was piloted with students in five health disciplines. Preparation for placement was facilitated by learning plans, negotiated between students, supervisors and clinical placement coordinators; an innovative suite of clinical scenarios designed to prepare students for ethical and emotional challenges that could arise on placement; and a suite of professional development resources for supervisors. Study participants confirmed the educational value of the Better Prepared Better Placement resource as a tool for preparing health students and supervisors for clinical placement. Strategies to encourage full engagement with the resource can facilitate emotional and social learning.
Quality of clinical education - A three-year follow-up among undergraduate nursing students in Finland and Sweden
Hanna-Leena Melender, Elisabeth Jonsén, Yvonne Hilli
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(4), 305-319
Clinical education, preceptorship, quality, student supervision
The purpose of this study was to compare the experiences of a group of Swedish and two Finnish groups of student nurses (n=86) on the quality of clinical education over time. The data was collected using an instrument including four factors. In the comparison of the years 2009, 2010 and 2011/2012 (n=86), there were no statistically significant differences between years in the whole data. In year 2009 Swedish students (n=41) evaluated clinical preception and learning in clinical education lower than Finnish students (n=45). In the year 2010 Finnish students' evaluated clinical preception lower than Swedish students. In year 2011/2012 Swedish students evaluated learning objectives in clinical education lower than Finnish students. The follow-up group and the dropout group did not differ from each other regarding the background variables or reports on the quality of clinical education.
Technical and vocational education stakeholders' perceptions on professional skills acquired in private "Brevet de Technicien Supérieur (BTS)" schools in Togo
Yao Adjrah, Maryse Adjo Quashie
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(4), 321-333
Curriculum, skills, technical and vocational education, labor market, BTS, Lomé
This study intends to analyze formal and implemented BTS curricula in Lomé (Togo). Data collection was achieved by means of questionnaires and interviews for exploring, in five private BTS schools, the perceptions of students, teachers and pedagogical directors, as well as the views of employed BTS graduates and their employers, regarding the quality and effectiveness of BTS programs. Results indicated that most curricula for BTS training were imported from foreign educational systems and implemented without any sectorial study regarding the needs of the labor market. This dysfunction was revealed through the degree of dissatisfaction expressed by the stakeholders surveyed. Our findings showed a lack of confidence in the quality of current BTS training programs by both the professional milieu and the students and employed graduates. In addition, the weak partnership existing between firms and BTS schools leads to difficulties in the finding, organizing and monitoring of internships.
Learner perspectives on online assessments as a mechanism to engage in reflective practice
Lynnaire Sheridan, Suzanne Kotevski, Bonnie Amelia Dean
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(4), 335-345
Work-integrated learning, online learning, online assessment, reflective practice, business education
Reflective practice is an important lifelong skill for business professionals. In the work integrated learning (WIL) curriculum, supporting interns' development of reflective practice is critical to their experience in WIL as well as their transition into professional practice. The purpose of this paper is to explore students' perceptions on the use of online assessments for engagement in reflective practice as they undertake internships as part of WIL. The findings demonstrate online assessment as commensurate with facilitating reflection-on-action. Students report on the benefits of the online environment for enabling accessible and flexible engagement with assessments. The online assessments are endorsed as critical learning opportunities for students to iteratively look back on their actions to consider or record improvements as well as to 'practise reflective practice'. Although few students found online reflective assessments constrained social learning, we argue that a balance between face-to-face and online learning is essential to supporting learners in dispersed contexts in WIL.
Service-learning research: Definitional challenges and complexities
Cho See Chong
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(4), 347-358
Service-learning, impacts, complexities, holistic, research
This article highlights some of the challenges a researcher has to confront when conducting a study on the impacts of service-learning. A review of the literature has revealed that the term 'service-learning' has been variously defined and is often misunderstood. This confusion is exacerbated by the inconsistencies in the way service-learning is interpreted and implemented. The aim of discussing the difficulties associated with the research is premised upon the belief that to gain deeper insights and understanding of a field as perplexing and multifaceted as service-learning, one is required not only to acknowledge its complexities but also be willing to deal with them. The article concludes by reiterating what many researchers of this field had suggested, that is, the importance of adopting a holistic approach and the necessity to address various mediating factors, if one is to capture a more accurate and complete picture of how service-learning impacts students.
Implementing an interdisciplinary student centric approach to work-integrated learning
Gary Marchioro, Maria M. Ryan, Tim Perkins
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(4), 359-368
Interdisciplinary, authentic assessments contextualized learning, student-centered approach, generic skills and marketing research
This paper describes the implementation of an innovative approach to work-integrated learning using interdisciplinary projects within a university Faculty of Business. Further, it discusses the implementation of integrated and authentic assessments involving academic units in the marketing, urban planning and business communication disciplines. The authors reflect on issues involved with the introduction of interdisciplinary teaching and learning strategies, representing a shift from traditional silo approaches in tertiary education. The paper considers how a student-centered learning approach can support innovation in higher education. It highlights the importance of providing students with an integrated, in situ approach to learning within the context of their own learning institution. The paper concludes by asserting that universities can provide business students with authentic and relevant business problems, the opportunity to access the resources of the university and engage with staff and students across a range of disciplines to facilitate a project-based learning environment on-campus.
Issue 3 (Special Issue)
Special Issue: Critical assessment issues in work-integrated learning.

Guest Editor: Sonia Ferns
Critical assessment issues in work-integrated learning
Sonia Ferns, Karsten E. Zegwaard
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(3), 179-188
Assessment, reliability and validity, quality, workplace supervisor's feedback, ePortfolios
Assessment has long been a contentious issue in work-integrated learning (WIL) and cooperative education. Despite assessment being central to the integrity and accountability of a university and long-standing theories around best practice in assessment, enacting quality assessment practices has proven to be more difficult. Authors in this special issue on assessment highlight the need for balanced assessment approaches that reflect the highly variable experiences students encounter, and the need to keep validity and reliability paramount when constructing assessment structures. Increasingly quality and standards policies driven by more regulatory university environments are impacting on the design of assessment profiles. The value of workplace supervisors' feedback in WIL contexts is discussed and the challenges of measuring the nuances of unpredictable, context-dependent WIL outcomes are explored. The benefits of ePorftolios are advocated and the use of these platforms as assessment tools that enable a creative way for students to provide evidence of employability capabilities highlighted.
Theoretical perspectives on assessment in cooperative education placements
David Hodges, Chris Eames, Richard K. Coll
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(3), 189-207
Assessment, learning theory, cooperative education, placements
In this paper we examine theoretical perspectives on assessment in cooperative education placements. As assessment is linked to student learning, we focus briefly on the purposes of assessment. We then consider a range of learning theories that have been, and are more recently, explored as ways to explain the process of learning on cooperative education placements and their implications for assessment. We conclude that assessment that focusses on a student actively participating in a socioculturally-influenced process is likely to be a fair reflection of, and help facilitate, student learning in cooperative education placements.
Assessment of student outcomes from work-integrated learning: Validity and reliability
Calvin Smith
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(3), 209-223
validity, reliability, assessment purpose, assessment protocol
Learning and testing are two fundamental purposes of assessment. For the purposes of testing, validity and reliability need to be considered. In assessment, validity is the consideration that the assessment tool measures what it purports to measure, whilst reliability is the consideration that the assessment tool can generate the same results, with or without the same assessors, on different occasions. Discussed in this paper is the complicity of assessment within the variable context of work-integrated learning, considers possible assessment formats, and implications of validity and reliability.
Quality policy and the role of assessment in work-integrated learning
Jon Yorke, Lesley Vidovich
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(3), 225-239
Quality, policy, learning standards, assessment, work-integrated learning
This paper examines higher education quality policy developments internationally (U.K., U.S.) and in Australia with respect to the role of learning standards and assessment in work-integrated learning. Whilst remaining located primarily within the Australian higher education context, the paper briefly identifies some of the more influential global drivers and identifies how they play a significant role in shaping national agendas. The second part of this paper traces the development of quality policy in Australian higher education with respect to learning standards, and in particular it focuses on the policy intention to develop 'direct measures' of learning, which, it is argued, is potentially detrimental to work-integrated learning (WIL). The third part of this paper analyses key tensions associated with learning standards in terms of the assessment practices used to warrant them, identifying specific challenges in the context of WIL. The final section of the paper draws together these issues, identifying a number of implications and opportunities for the assessment of WIL in the current Australian quality policy environment.
Feedback on student performance in the workplace: The role of workplace supervisors
Deborah Peach, Elizabeth Ruinard, Fleur Webb
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(3), 241-252
WIL, feedback, workplace supervisor, student-negotiated WIL, stakeholder engagement, student agency
This chapter highlights the importance of feedback in work-integrated learning (WIL), the key role of workplace supervisors, and the importance of continuous improvement in systems to support feedback processes. The paper proposes a definition of feedback and formative feedback, as well as approaches for providing industry feedback in WIL. It further reports on a case analysis based on workplace supervisors providing feedback to students in engineering and urban development, yielding certain insights into student performance in the workplace, and more importantly, highlighting the need to enhance the use of feedback processes. This is required in a context where delivering feedback in WIL is generally acknowledged to be complex, and where the role of the industry supervisor in appraising the performance of the student in the workplace needs to be very clearly defined in order for supervisors’ feedback to have optimal impact. Feedback in WIL is set against the backdrop of recognizing the importance and complexity of stakeholder engagement in WIL in general, and the intricacy associated with the provision of feedback from industry supervisors in particular. Student self-assessment is briefly considered as a further dimension of their participation in providing feedback on their own performance in the workplace.
Assessing the immeasurables of practice
Joy Higgs
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(3), 253-267
Assessment, practice, work-integrated learning, immeasurables
This paper examines a significant challenge facing students and educators in work-integrated learning (WIL), the learning and assessment of practice immeasurables. Often student assessment focuses on the overt and those aspects of practice that are readily observable and measurable. Educators also need to look at those aspects of practice which are less observable and less measurable, particularly by typical assessment tools, because the immeasurables of practice are deep, fundamental, and critical aspects of successful, professional and person-centered practice.
ePortfolios as evidence of standards and outcomes in work-integrated learning
Sonia Ferns, Jude Comfort
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(3), 269-280
Work-integrated learning, ePortfolios, authentic assessment, graduate attributes
Electronic portfolios (ePortfolios) are a student focused tool which support and evidence work-integrated learning (WIL) experiences and capabilities in a tertiary education setting. Such settings are increasingly faced by a regulatory framework requiring evidence of student competency and skill acquisition. The commitment of educational institutions to integrate WIL in programs of study has driven the development of electronic portfolios using various platforms. This paper will discuss how the ePortfolio has evolved in response to the WIL agenda and its potential to capture authentic assessment and evidence competencies far beyond the traditional academic transcript. The value of an electronic repository of artefacts for students in the transition from institution to employment is highlighted, and the potential benefits of employers' involvement in the future direction of ePortfolios are discussed. A case study approach is employed to articulate the possibilities and challenges of achieving institutional acceptance, support and implementation of ePortfolios.
Issue 2
Developing an objective structured clinical examination to assess work-integrated learning in exercise physiology
Fiona Naumann, Keri Moore, Sally Mildon, Philip Jones
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(2), 81-89
Exercise physiology, key competencies, assessment, work-integrated learning
This paper aims to develop a valid method to assess the key competencies of the exercise physiology profession acquired through work-integrated learning (WIL). In order to develop a competency-based assessment, the key professional tasks needed to be identified and the test designed so students' competency in different tasks and settings could be assessed. The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was adopted for this purpose. Key competencies for practice were identified by clinical academics, practicing accredited exercise physiologists (AEPs), and by a review of the exercise physiology scope of practice document. Final year exercise physiology students who had completed professional placements participated in three pilot OSCEs. Content validity was evaluated following feedback from students and staff, and test results were analyzed to confirm reliability. Key competencies were grouped within the domains of communication, clinical and procedural skills, and technical proficiency. The results indicate that the OSCE is a valid and reliable method of assessment of the key professional competencies of exercise physiology students acquired through WIL.
Market tested business education: Corporate sector perceptions of Saudi graduates competencies
Adnan Iqbal, Mikhail Zenchenkov
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(2), 91-106
Soft-skills, service-learning concepts, university-industry linkage, curriculum design, technical competencies, Saudi Arabia
University-industry collaboration patterns in more advanced economies have greatly impacted expectations for higher educational systems in developing countries. In Saudi Arabia, generally poor innovation performance of domestic industry has been perceived as a constraint in global competitiveness. The purpose of this study was to determine if there were differences among employers, and university academicians on their perceptions of the importance of skills and competencies that are needed by graduates seeking entry-level employment. The results suggest that a lack of efficient direct mechanisms to encourage university-industry collaboration has given rise to large disparities in the ability of individual institutions to interface with the corporate sector. This study found that there is vital need of soft skill development in the future graduates. Moreover, students need to be exposed to service-learning concepts. The service-learning projects should be incorporated in all the courses.
International WIL placements: Their influence on student professional development, personal growth and cultural competence
Nigel Gribble, Alma Dender, Emma Lawrence, Kirrily Manning, Torbjorn Falkmer
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(2), 107-117
International, work-integrated learning, reflective journals, inter-professional, service learning
In the increasingly global world, skills in cultural competence now form part of the minimum standards of practice required for allied health professionals. During an international work-integrated learning (WIL) placement, allied health students' cultural competence is expected to be enhanced. The present study scrutinized reflective journals of students who completed an international WIL placement to identify themes related to student learning. A retrospective content analysis identified three core themes with sub-themes: Cultural Competence with three subthemes: cultural egocentricity and cultural adjustment, cultural conflict in dealing with disability (not resolved over time) and, communication and language barriers; Professional Development with two subthemes: the evolution of evaluating success and impact on future practice, and Personal Growth with two subthemes: newfound reality - constant self-discovery and social responsibility. These themes provide guidance for academics in preparing students beforehand and the reflections during international WIL placements.
Moving through Moodle: Using e-technology to enhance social work field education
Kathryn Hay, Michael Dale
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(2), 119-128
Online environment, Moodle, field education, community of practice
At Massey University, New Zealand, the Moodle program was introduced as an institutional innovation to support and enhance teaching and learning. Within the social work field education program Moodle has been embraced as an opportunity to creatively advance current educational practices. The development of a meta-site for field education enables greater connections between the university and the community. This paper explores the perspectives of field educators and academic staff on the opportunities and challenges associated with on-line learning in field education. Specifically it assesses the value of this Moodle site and considers ways in which the current innovation can be further developed.
Benefits to host organizations from participating in internship programs in Botswana
Klodwig Mgaya, Christian Mbekomize
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(2), 129-144
Business education, internship programs, corporate social responsibility, host organizations
Across the globe internship programs have gained the attention of many tertiary institutions. Many researchers have found the internship programs to be beneficial to the students, tertiary institutions and host organizations. The Faculty of Business at the University of Botswana runs an internship program which attaches students to various organizations for a period of ten weeks. This study presents the views of host organizations on their commitment to continue supporting the internship program and the structure of benefits that they get from it. Closed and open-ended questions were used to collect the views and an exploratory factor analysis was used to analyze the responses. The findings suggest that host organizations benefit in four ways: fulfillment of corporate social responsibility, enhancement of corporate image, gaining of new idea, and cost savings.
Planning the journey to best practice in developing employability skills: Transnational university internships in Vietnam
Christine Bilsland, Helga Nagy, Phil Smith
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(2), 145-157
Employability skills, graduate attributes, higher education Vietnam, internships, transnational education, work integrated learning
Currently, there is little research into how Western universities can establish and implement effective WIL (Work Integrated Learning) in their offshore campuses. Given global concern with university graduates' general work-readiness, combined with a need for foreign universities to deliver relevant outcomes to its offshore students, greater insight is needed. This paper examines WIL in an offshore education context. It reports results from work supervisor evaluations of interns in a foreign university that delivers its WIL/internship program to undergraduate business degree students in Vietnam. Although preliminary results indicate that work supervisors are generally satisfied with intern performance on employability skill measures, the authors propose further research that would enable universities to deliver locally relevant WIL programs. The paper concludes by proposing WIL research initiatives aimed at incorporating richer communication and involvement with the company representatives/ frontline supervisors; understanding relevant factors of importance held by industry; and building closer connections with industry.
Realizing the professional within: The effect of work integrated learning
Kirsten MacDonald, Craig Cameron, Mark Brimble, Brett Freudenberg, Dianne English
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(2), 159-178
Work-integrated learning, generic skills, career skills, professional identity, graduate attributes, work readiness
With a government agenda to increase university participation, and larger numbers of students being 'first-in-family' to attend university, students have a limited understanding and appreciation of their chosen profession. Adverse implications include reduced motivation towards study and non-appreciation of the required skills to succeed in the work force. Work integrated learning (WIL) can provide these career skills and understanding. This article analyses whether students undertaking an external off-campus internship in their 2nd and 3rd years of a business degree assists in 'realizing the professional' within. Building on prior research for 1st year students, the article examines the effects on students' professional skills and professional identity of an off-campus internship while studying part-time. The results demonstrate the important role of WIL, with WIL students demonstrating greater improvement in professional skills and professional identity. Resources for WIL should be provided to conform to the government’s aspiration for greater university participation.
Issue 1
Creativity as a desirable graduate attribute: Implications for curriculum design and employability
Giselle Rampersad, Fay Patel
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(1), 1-11
Creativity, innovation, graduate attributes, curriculum design, employability, work-integrated learning
A wide range of graduate attributes are listed, categorized and prioritized by different higher education institutions. However, one attribute that is less visible in the literature is creativity. In the current study, creativity has emerged as a desirable graduate attribute among students and employers. This paper presents an exploratory discussion framed around a pilot study that examines student and employer perceptions on how creativity in leadership can be developed through a work-integrated learning approach for innovation and enterprise students in a science and engineering program. Key outcomes are discussed suggesting that notions of creativity have evolved from first generation concepts of creativity as an artistic, complex trait of gifted individuals toward a higher level of development to second generation concepts of creativity as a purposeful, collaborative process. Creativity in leadership emerged as a desirable graduate attribute.
The influence of work-integrated learning on motivation to undertake graduate studies
Karsten E. Zegwaard, Susan McCurdy
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(1), 13-28
Work placements, postgraduate study motivation, career clarification, perception of abilities
There has been concern around the lack of postgraduate qualified scientists and engineers (e.g., Gago et al., 2004; Koslow, 2005; Lovitts & Nelson, 2000). However, to be effective in increasing the number of science postgraduates, a greater understanding of why students go on to do graduate studies must be developed. Presented here is a study on the views held by science graduates from a cooperative education (co-op)/work-integrated learning (WIL) degree, who are currently undertaking graduate studies, on how their work placements influenced their decision to do further studies. These graduates cited greater awareness of career prospects and the experience of doing research during their work placement as motivators to carry on with graduate studies. These graduates also indicated an awareness of hierarchy within the workplace and were motivated to undertake graduate studies so they can obtain careers at these higher levels. The research findings suggests that the perhaps traditional views held by some co-op practitioners and faculty, where co-op students are directed readily into the employment sector, may be a too limiting view of co-op/WIL.
Exploring the role and skill set of physiotherapy clinical educators in work-integrated learning
Susan Edgar, Joanne Connaughton
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(1), 29-36
Clinical educator; co-operative learning; work-integrated learning (WIL)
Clinical educators are under increasing pressures in the workplace to provide quality education of healthcare students within varying supervision frameworks. Along with facilitating the teaching of clinical skills, clinical educators play a support role for students and so require more than expert clinical abilities in their vital position linking institutions and the healthcare environment. Twelve physiotherapy clinical educators attended one of two focus groups exploring their opinions on the role and skill set of clinical educators in work-integrated learning (WIL). Clinical educators described their role, their skills, challenges they faced supporting the needs of students, as well as future training requirements. The focus group results highlighted the important role of soft skills in the clinical educator role. The development of this skill set is essential to ensure quality supervision through optimal interactions between clinical educators and students in WIL.
What's in a name? A reference guide to work-education experiences
Phil Gardner, Kenneth R. Bartkus
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(1), 37-54
Education, work experience, names, definitions, terminologies
Although a multitude of programs in higher education integrate formal pedagogy with practical work experience (e.g., internships, practicum, and cooperative education), their underlying logic is largely the same: to enhance the value of the learning experience through an integration of work and education. To date, however, there appears to be no generally accepted term to describe the overall category of programs. Without reference to a general descriptor, researchers and practitioners may find it more difficult to fully understand and appreciate the differences and similarities among the myriad of programs. The purpose of this article, therefore, is twofold: (1) to propose an umbrella term that describes the overall category of programs and (2) to provide a reference guide that describes the fundamentals of each program. In doing so, this article is intended to contribute to this important discussion.
The value of workplace learning in the first year for university students from under-represented groups
Celina McEwen, Franziska Trede
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(1), 55-67
Workplace learning, first year, retention, widening participation, university, professional education
Workplace learning (WPL) is widely accepted in universities as a valuable component of educating for professional practices. Most often though, the focus of WPL is on helping students transition into the workforce, neglecting the role it can play in helping students transition into university. Using an online questionnaire and interviews, a study was conducted with undergraduate students enrolled in a regional Australian university to better understand their experiences of WPL in the first year of their studies. Findings from this study showed that although there are challenges associated with students undertaking WPL in the first year of university courses, WPL experiences were highly valued by students. Findings also highlighted that WPL had potential as a retention strategy for first year students in general, and students from under-represented groups in particular.
Exploring hope, self-efficacy, procrastination, and study skills between cooperative and non-cooperative education students
Maureen T. B. Drysdale, Margaret McBeath
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(1), 69-79
Cooperative education, hope, procrastination, self-efficacy, study skills, anxiety, attitude, school to work transition
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between participation in cooperative education, and several psychological constructs believed to be related to success in both academic and professional settings. Participants, undergraduate cooperative (n = 1224) and non-cooperative education (n = 746) students in all years of study and from several academic faculties, completed a survey measuring the psychological constructs of hope, self-efficacy, procrastination, and study-skills. Results indicated significant differences in several study skill characteristics as a function of co-op, gender, and faculty. No significant differences emerged between co-op and non-co-op students on the hope, self-efficacy, or procrastination scales. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Volume 14 (2013)
Issue 4
To grade or not to grade: Student perceptions of the effects of grading a course in work-integrated learning
Gregory Reddan
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(4), 223-232
Assessment, grading, student motivation, work-integrated learning, exercise science
This paper aims to demonstrate the benefits of introducing the typical course grading process to a work-integrated learning course in exercise science in order to motivate students to produce their best efforts in assessment tasks relevant to their future employability. The course had incorporated a non-graded pass/fail system of assessment since it was first offered but changed to a typical university grading process in 2011. At the completion of the course a two-page questionnaire was administered to all students to determine their opinions of changing from a non-graded to a graded form of assessment. Additionally, seven students volunteered for a 20 minute individual interview to examine how the grading of the course affected a number of factors related to their learning in the course. The results of the study indicated that students supported the change from a non-graded to a graded system of assessment. Minimal negative concerns were reported by students The findings suggest that students prefer the use of a graded system of assessment in a work-integrated learning course in exercise science They perceived that grading of the course increased their motivation to submit high quality responses for all assessment items and provided them with an opportunity to improve their grade point average (GPA), for entry into post-graduate programs, as well as rewarding them for their efforts towards academic excellence and preparing them for their future careers.
Evaluating the development of science research skills in work-integrated learning through the use of workplace science tools
Susan M. McCurdy, Karsten E. Zegwaard, Jacinta Dalgety
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(4), 233-249
Tertiary science education, work-integrated learning; tools, workplace learning, science education
Concept understanding, the development of analytical skills and a research mind set are explored through the use of academic tools common in a tertiary science education and relevant work-integrated learning (WIL) experiences. The use and development of the tools; laboratory book, technical report, and literature review are examined by way of semi-structured interviews with graduate students, and comparing undergraduate students who had completed science work placements and those who had not. Students who had experienced work placements developed a professional and sophisticated understanding of the use of the tools, science concepts and the research process prior to graduating, hence were better prepared for graduate study or moving onto a professional science arena. Non-WIL graduate students also developed these skills, but after they had already embarked on research degrees. This research shows that academic tools specific to science workplaces can uncover discrepancies between what science research skills students have at tertiary level, and what is required of them in a professional situation.
Preparing medical students as agentic learners through enhancing student engagement in clinical education
Janet Richards, Linda Sweet, Stephen Billett
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(4), 251-263
Agency, agentic learning, clinical education, personal epistemology, work-integrated learning
Preparing medical students to be agentic learners is held to be increasingly important. This is because beyond sequencing, enhancing and varying of experiences across university and health care settings, medical students require epistemological agency to optimize their learning. The positioning of students in these settings, and their engagement with these is central to effective medical education. Consequently, when considering both the processes and outcomes of individuals' learning to become a doctor, it is helpful to account for the interrelated pedagogical factors of affordance, guidance, and engagement. This paper focuses on the last set of concerns - the student's engagement - with particular consideration to how they shape the relations between what experiences are afforded through the medical program and how they elect to engage with them. Evidence from a qualitative study is used to present five salient factors that are central to assist medical students prepare as agentic learners.
Students' reflections on industry placement: Comparing four undergraduate work-integrated learning streams
Karen Huges, Aliisa Mylonas, Pierre Benckendorff
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(4), 265-279
Internship, placement, reflection, tourism, Aristotle, episteme, techne, phronesis
This paper compares four work-integrated learning (WIL) streams embedded in a professional Development course for tourism, hospitality and event management students. Leximancer was used to analyze key themes emerging from reflective portfolios completed by the 137 students in the course. Results highlight that student learning outcomes and experiences differed depending on the WIL stream chosen. Aristotle's notions of episteme, techne and phronesis are used as a broad framework for situating the key themes that emerge from students' reflections.
Problem-based service learning with a heart: Organizational and student expectations and experiences in a postgraduate not-for-profit workshop event
Sharyn McDonald
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(4), 281-293
problem-based learning, service learning, WIL, NFP
Service learning and problem-based learning (PBL) are distinct, yet related educational approaches. When collaborative learning events which encourage the application of the PBL principles to real world challenges faced by Not-For-Profit organizations (NFPs), these learning approaches become potentially synergistic. However, there is limited research exploring expectations and experiences of NFP stakeholders and students involved in such events. By interviewing a sample of stakeholders in relation to an experiential NFP-focused workshop initiative, it was revealed that while tangible benefits were identified by both parties, opportunities exist to optimize the design, management, marketing and learning benefits of future initiatives. These opportunities centre on closer collaboration with NFPs to clarify and manage expectations, as well as encouraging practicality and applicability in ideas generation. This research provides insights into the challenges and benefits of the service learning / PBL interface when directed towards the NFP sector.
Issues and challenges identified in the development of a broad multidisciplinary work integrated learning package
Karen Sutherland, Mark Symmons
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(4), 295-304
Work integrated learning, WIL, internship, placement, curriculum, assessment
Work integrated learning (WIL) units can be discipline specific and constructed for majors or degrees with a strong vocational orientation. This paper describes an undergraduate unit with its genesis in a public relations internship. The original unit enjoyed strong support from industry partners and was instrumental in many graduates securing employment. The school owning the public relations major also offers other majors and degrees and sought to capture the eagerness of students to engage in workplace participation, but against an institutional imperative to consolidate teaching activities The challenge was to create sufficient universality without diluting the success enjoyed by the PR internship program or detracting from the need for effective WIL outcomes. The result was a set of processes, assessments and management practices that could be efficiently and readily adopted by any participating discipline. The unit could run every semester and separate disciplines could opt in or out. Efficiencies were to be optimized while still delivering the outcomes desired by students, industry partners, and the academics involved.
Issue 3 (Special Issue)
Special Issue: Work Integrated Learning - Investing in the Future. Papers from the Australian Collaborative Education Network Annual Conference 2012

Guest Editor: Matthew Campbell
Reflections on twenty years of practicum, partnership & practice
Andrew J. Martin
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(3), 127-134
Reflective practice, Pedagogy development; Graduate attributes
Twenty years ago the development of a sports management program at Massey University was then the only one in New Zealand. Professional rugby was still a couple of years away. Kit McConnell, Head of the 2011 RWC and Tournament Director for the IRB, was a Masters student back then. He indicated "the academic staff were doing something new – and special. For me, there was a good balance between having enough structure and learning about the elements of the industry and having freedom within the curriculum to explore what interested me" (cited in Massey University, 2011, p. 15). This paper provides an auto-ethnography related to the author's extensive involvement and self-reflection on leading the development of work based experiential education sport management and coaching related practicum programs at Massey University. Themes and phases of program development are outlined that informed WIL understanding, particularly in the sport context. The research is interpretive in nature and philosophy and employs a collective case study methodology across different educational contexts. The implications are for reflective practice, pedagogy development graduate attributes.
The vulnerable worker? A labor law challenge for WIL and work experience
Craig Cameron
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(3), 135-146
Work-integrated learning, Work experience, Labor regulation, Fair Work Act, Fair Labor Standards Act
The Fair Work Act (2009) in Australia deregulates "work" in work-integrated learning (WIL) by distinguishing "vocational placement" from "employee". Following concerns about the legal position of WIL and work experience, the Fair Work Ombudsman (FWO) published a fact sheet and commenced a joint research project into unpaid work practices. Nevertheless, the student remains vulnerable to exploitation. This article examines, through the lenses of flexibility and worker protection, the labor regulation of WIL and work experience in Australia and the United States. In particular, the author argues that deregulation in Australia and the legal uncertainty surrounding work experience is inconsistent with the protective function of labor law. Drawing on this examination as well as Australian migration law, the author recommends that the Fair Work Act (2009) be amended to strengthen the criteria for "vocational placement" and to provide a definition of "work experience" in the interests of a balanced regulatory framework.
Undergraduate reflective journaling in work integrated learning: Is it relevant to professional practice?
Susan Edgar, Jacqueline Francis-Coad, Joanne Connaughton
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(3), 147-156
Reflection, Blogs, Work-integrated learning
This paper presents the research findings from a study reviewing graduates' opinions on completing online reflective journaling tasks during work integrated learning as an undergraduate. The study was divided into two parts with an initial focus group conducted with six physiotherapy graduates seven months following graduation. Findings from the focus group guided the development of a questionnaire sent to graduates nine months after course completion. Results from both the focus group and questionnaire (n = 25) highlighted the benefits of online, structured, assessed reflective writing tasks. Graduates provided specific examples of their personal and professional development and perceived benefits from undertaking reflective journaling during work integrated learning. These findings may have application across a wide variety of tertiary courses of study with work integrated learning incorporated into curriculum.
Using a Strengths Approach to Early Childhood Teacher Preparation in Child Protection using Work-Integrated Education
Angela Fenton
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(3), 157-169
Work-integrated education, Early childhood education, Strengths approach, Child protection, Teacher education
This paper explores a collaborative strengths-based approach to investing in pre-service early childhood teacher education in the area of child protection. The doctoral research of the author, which evaluated a Strengths Approach3 as a cross-sector tool for implementing change in early-childhood education and in doing so researched a potential investment in improving pre-service preparation, is described and discussed. Findings from the research suggest that using a strengths-based process, involving work-integrated learning, enhanced the ability of the pre-service teachers in the study to protect young children.
Community-based service-learning: Partnerships of reciprocal exchange?
Laura Hammersley
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(3), 171-184
Community-based Service-learning, Reciprocity, Mutual benefit, Community development, International service-learning, Community-based research
Community-based service-learning (CBSL) integrates experiential learning and academic goals with organized activities designed to meet the objectives of community partners. CBSL has potential to enhance (1) academic learning, (2) foster civic responsibility, (3) develop life skills and (4) transform student attitudes. However, little research supports claims that benefits are mutual amongst host counterparts. A lack of empirical research into community partner conceptualizations of best practice approaches and impacts, reflects a uni-dimensional understanding of the mutuality of programs, and fails to challenge dominant power relations embedded in traditionally uneven partnerships. It remains problematic to engage with service-learning without considering neocolonialist ideologies underpinning the ways community service, international development, and volunteering are defined and practiced. Drawing on development discourse, this paper first demonstrates how intertwined CBSL is with contemporary development agendas; second, brings attention to the absence of partner perspectives and involvement within CBSL studies; and third, outlines a CBSL research agenda.
Leveraging work-integrated learning through on-campus employment: A university-wide approach
Gaon Mitchell, Judie Kay
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(3), 185-193
Work-integrated learning, Graduate capabilities, Part-time work, On-campus employment
At Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia, the majority of students engage in paid employment alongside their studies; and, every student has the opportunity to engage with work-integrated learning as a key component of their academic course. This paper explores an innovative structured approach the university has initiated to align these two activities: the Students as Staff Program. The 2011 Students as Staff evaluation found that 20 per cent of respondents received academic credit for their on-campus employment and more indicated their roles were related to their discipline of study. Additionally, respondents reported feeling significantly engaged with the university and that work on campus had contributed to developing their graduate capabilities. These evaluation results indicate that on-campus employment through a structured program enhances student learning outcomes. This paper discusses key ways in which tertiary institutions can expand their capacity to support and enhance student learning and develop graduate capabilities through on-campus paid work opportunities.
Ethical practice in learning through participation: Showcasing and evaluating the PACE Ethical Practice Module
Michaela Baker, Alison Beale, Laura Hammersley, Kate Lloyd, Anne-Louise Semple, Karolyn White
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(3), 195-207
Ethical practice, Teaching ethics, Participation and community engagement, Curriculum development and evaluation
In 2008, Macquarie University instituted the Participation and Community Engagement (PACE) initiative. This initiative embeds units in the curriculum that involve learning through participation (LTP) that is mutually beneficial to the student, the University and the organisation or community in which student participation activities take place. Ethical practice is thus an integral part of this initiative. The issue of ethical practice in LTP 'has not been comprehensively addressed in the literature to date' and warrants further examination. This paper discusses the development of the innovative PACE Ethical Practice Module to teach ethical practice in participation units. We evaluate the effectiveness of the Module using a mixed methodology and present preliminary findings on students' perceptions before and after their participation activity, and evaluations by academic convenors of participation units. We conclude by discussing the implications for future iterations of the Module and teaching ethics in PACE.
Exploring cooperative education partnerships: A case study in sport tertiary education
Jenny Fleming, Chris Hickey
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(3), 209-221
Partnerships, Relationships, Cooperative education, Sport
Cooperative education can be expressed in terms of a partnership between students, university and industry. A stakeholder-integrated approach to cooperative education involves formalized sustainable relationships between stakeholders. This study investigated the motives and determinants for the formation of cooperative education partnerships. Through a qualitative case study, the perceptions of cooperative education stakeholders were explored in the context of sport tertiary education. The students, industry and academics views supported multiple determinants such as reciprocity, efficiency, legitimacy and synergy as important in the formation of cooperative education partnerships. Interpersonal connections and individual factors also played a key role. However, for long-term viability the university and industry also need to consider strategic alignment rather than partnerships based on individual interests alone. Understanding the perceptions of the stakeholders involved in the partnership will contribute to improving the management and sustainability of sport cooperative education experiences for students, the university and industry.
Issue 2
Providing research-focused work-integrated learning for high achieving science undergraduates
Theo Papakonstantinou, Kate Charlton-Robb, Richard D. Reina, Gerry Rayner
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(2), 59-73
work-integrated learning, undergraduate work placement, employment opportunities, university-industry partnership
Work-integrated learning has become an integral part of many undergraduate and postgraduate degrees, both in Australia and internationally. Such programs vary in structure, timeframe and discipline type, with concomitant amounts of support, assessment and evaluation. Their value to students, industry partners and higher education institutions, while of considerable potential, depends on a range of factors including the level of resourcing (i.e. level of funding, involvement of a project coordinator, strength of communication among participants), how optimally matched students are to projects, and the use of evaluation and reflection tools to refine and improve them. This paper reports on the development, implementation and evaluation of an inaugural research-oriented WIL program for high-achieving science students at Monash University. The research-related nature of this WIL program has been of considerable value to students and industry partners. Further, it has established ongoing links between the University and industry partners, and provides a strong foundation for establishing a faculty coordinated WIL program.
Mapping WIL activities in the curriculum to develop graduate capabilities: A case study in accounting
Riccardo Natoli, Beverley Jackling, Friederika Kaider, Colin Clark
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(2), 75-88
program evaluation, organizational change, work integrated learning, organizational culture, accounting
Big business continues to request universities to produce graduates who possess both technical and generic skills. Although work-integrated learning (WIL) programs can be used to develop these skills, WIL placements in Australia are undertaken by a minority of students. Perceiving a gap, one Australian university undertook a major WIL revamp to expand WIL offerings embedded within its courses. This required major organizational change that impacted significantly on curriculum design. From a quality assurance perspective, this paper provides an overview of a revised WIL program in the accounting discipline, and discusses the issues and challenges associated with the revised WIL program four years after its implementation. The findings demonstrate that the discipline area has not yet fully met the revamped WIL program as defined by university policy. Recommendations are provided that form a valuable learning tool for educational institutions considering embedding broadly defined WIL within their courses.
Internships: Tapping into China's next generation of talent
Philip Rose
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(2), 89-98
China, internships, talent management, recruitment and selection
At the current juncture of China's economic development, the mismatch between the supply of university graduates and contemporary organizations' staffing demands is becoming increasingly evident. Thus, student participation in internships and their use by organizations, as means to recruit and select graduate talent in China has undergone rapid expansion over the last three decades, to the point where today, as in many other national contexts, both interns and host organizations regard internships as a preferred pathway into entry-level professional positions. However, internships in China take place against a contextual backdrop which is generally regarded to be distinct from many other national contexts. Hence, this paper will situate the practice of internships relative to the Chinese context, and advocate the conceptualization internships, as a recruitment and selection tool capable of contributing towards addressing the contemporary staffing demands of organizations operating in China.
The contribution of work-integrated learning to undergraduate employability skill outcomes
Denise Jackson
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(2), 99-115
Work-integrated learning; Cooperative education; Employability; Skills; Undergraduate; Graduate
WIL has attracted considerable attention as an instrument for enhancing professional practice and developing work-readiness in new graduates. It is widely considered as a point of difference in developing graduate employability by enhancing skill outcomes, such as team-work, communication, self-management and problem solving, employment prospects and student understanding of the world-of-work. This paper investigates the role of WIL in improving undergraduate employability skills; gauging its impact on a range of skills; and identifying variations in outcomes for certain demographic, study background and placement characteristics using survey data from 131 WIL students in an Australian university. Results indicate a significant improvement in undergraduates' perceived ability to perform all ten employability skills following placement. Study background and demographic characteristics produced minor variations in skill outcomes, both in general and specific to the completed placement. The number of hours completed in the workplace was of particular importance. Implications for placement design are discussed.
Are work-integrated learning (WIL) students better equipped psychologically for work post-graduation than their non-work-integrated learning peers? Some initial findings from a UK university
Fiona Purdie, Lisa Ward, Tina McAdie, Nigel King, Maureen Drysdale
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(2), 117-125
Employability; Psychological factors; Work-integrated learning; Placement; Confidence; Self esteem
Work-integrated learning (WIL) provides an opportunity to develop the skills, knowledge, competence, and experience, which increase employability and lead to more satisfying careers. Research indicates that WIL results in improved academic- and occupationally-related outcomes. However, there is a paucity of quantitative research examining the psychological impact of WIL. The study aimed to determine whether students who pursue WIL in the UK, differ significantly in terms of self-concept, self-efficacy, hope, study skills, motivation, and procrastination than students who have not participated in WIL. The methodology used a cross-sectional analysis of a large sample (n=716) of undergraduate students at the University of Huddersfield, UK. Results showed significant differences predominantly centred upon measures which pertain to students' confidence in setting and attaining goals. The increased hope and confidence in goal attainment suggest that gaining work experience perhaps enhances the ability to set and achieve goals once in the work force.
Issue 1
A work-integrated learning (WIL) framework to develop graduate skills and attributes in an Australian university's accounting program
Raymond Leong, Marie Kavanagh
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(1), 1-14
Work-integrated learning, framework, employability, skills, attributes, accounting
Universities are being placed under increasing pressure to produce employable work ready graduates who are able to cope in a rapidly changing work environment. This has resulted in universities offering their undergraduate students the opportunity to gain business acumen and real world experience by undertaking work-integrated learning (WIL) as part of their learning. This paper proposes a three stage framework to effectively embed WIL into an undergraduate accounting program. Through careful planning and implementation in three accounting courses, students are encouraged to build essential discipline knowledge and transferable generic skills like communication, teamwork and problem-solving. The WIL framework developed seeks to narrow the expectations gap between industry, academia and students. It supports the development of graduates who can respond to rapidly changing economic circumstances, making them more employable and adaptable at the workplace.
Vocational education and training programmes (VET): An Asian perspective
Tushar Agrawal
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(1), 15-26
labour market; vocational education and training; skill development; South Asia
This paper makes an attempt to provide a review on challenges, outcomes and present situation in vocational education and training (VET) programs in some Asian countries. Various country-specific studies indicate that the VET system has not responded very well in the South Asian region. The VET stream is quite small. Despite there being a growing demand for a skilled labor force, the labor market outcomes of those who have followed the vocational path are not good. However, the governments are giving full attention to making the VET system robust in these countries. Various new policy initiatives have been undertaken by the governments in recent years.
Developing a collaborative model of industry feedback for work placement of business students
Joan Richardson, Beverley Jackling, Kathy Henschke, Irene Tempone
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(1), 27-43
Work-integrated learning (WIL); industry supervisor role; workplace assessment
Work-integrated learning (WIL) is a signature feature of study in many higher education institutions. In business degrees, industry feedback is recognized as an integral part of the assessment of WIL, yet the role played by industry in appraising student performance in the workplace has not been clearly defined. Based on interviews with industry supervisors and academic mentors, this paper addresses the integration of academic and industry supervisor assessment practices designed to maximize student learning outcomes and capture the depth of the learning experiences during a work placement. A model of industry feedback was developed to incorporate planned assessment practices that achieve the learning outcomes agreed to at the start of the placement by all stakeholders: the student, the academic mentor and the industry supervisor.
Work-integrated learning courses: An essential component for preparing students to work in statutory child protection?
Annerley Bates, Lyndel Bates
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(1), 45-58
WIL, work-integrated learning, child safety worker, child protection, novice professional, course work
Undergraduate programs can play an important role in the development of individuals wanting professional employment within statutory child protection agencies: both the coursework and the work-integrated learning (WIL) components of degrees have a role in this process. This paper uses a collective case study methodology to examine the perceptions and experiences of first year practitioners within a specific statutory child protection agency in order to identify whether they felt prepared for their current role. The sample of 20 participants came from a range of discipline backgrounds with just over half of the sample (55%) completing a WIL placement as part of their undergraduate studies. The results indicate that while some participants were able to identify and articulate specific benefits from their undergraduate coursework studies, all participants who had undertaken a WIL placement as part of their degree believed the WIL placement was beneficial for their current work.
Volume 13 (2012)
Issue 4
Publishing cooperative and work-integrated education literature: The Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education
Karsten E. Zegwaard
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(4), 181-193
Publishing, literature, citations, journal performance
The Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education (APJCE) was founded in 1999, with the first volume published in 2000. The journal strongly adhered to the philosophy of having freely and readily accessible information, and opted to be a free, fully online, open access journal. Over the last 12 years, the journal has grown and has become well-established in the cooperative (co-op) and work-integrated learning (WIL) community. The number of publications per year has steadily increased and the number of submissions has shown strong growth, especially in the last three years. APJCE articles are increasingly cited in other journals and significant book publications, and both its author and user bases have become more international. This article will discuss the advantages from the APJCE perspective of being an open access journal and provide an analysis of the growth of APJCE. The article will also discuss the performance of the journal in the context of co-op/WIL literature internationally and discuss some recent developments for the journal.
Practical idealism: Social enterprise as work-integrated learning across the humanities
Jock MacLeod, Susanna Chamberlain
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(4), 195-206
Arts, social enterprise, idealism, workplace, third sector, community
The Bachelor of Arts has traditionally provided a liberal education, emphasising the development of critical and other transportable skills in a range of humanities disciplines. One challenge for humanities educators in the twenty-first century is to find ways to bridge this tradition with the demand that graduates be prepared for the workplace. The School of Humanities at Griffith University has developed a suite of courses in its BA into which a work–integrated learning experience in social enterprise is embedded. The rationale for choosing social enterprises for WIL is the many opportunities they provide to articulate with the wide range of disciplines taught in a BA, and their capacity to resonate with the broad idealism of BA students. This paper offers an overview of the program since its inception in 2008, presents a reflection on the theoretical and pedagogical issues involved, and examines the impact of this innovation on the students.
Assessing student outcomes in fieldwork placements: An overview of current practice
Sonia Ferns, Keri Moore
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(4), 207-224
work-integrated learning, assessment, graduate attributes, feedback
Arguably, successful WIL activities contribute to a sustainable workforce for the future economic growth and improvement of the Australian economy. While there is a growing abundance of literature on work-integrated learning, specifically, fieldwork, there is little on how this is assessed, the quality of the assessment process and ultimately, the outcomes for students. The study explored the assessment strategy used in a selection of undergraduate subjects/units which incorporated a fieldwork component. All subjects employed multiple assessment points to verify student proficiency. Communication skills, discipline knowledge and professional skills were the Graduate Attributes most frequently assessed while international perspectives was not aligned to any assessment tasks. While partnerships with industry were highlighted as an essential element of a successful WIL experience, the majority of feedback to students was provided by academic staff. The research highlighted a diversity of approaches in pre- and post-placement activities to enable students to prepare for and reflect upon the placement experience.
Construction of an instrument to measure effectiveness of placement settings and experiences
Vanessa Sturre, Sophie Keele, Kathryn von Treuer, Simon Moss, Janet McLeod, Susie MacFarlane
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(4), 225-238
work placements, placement evaluation instrument, socio-emotional selectivity theory, meaning maintenance model, determinants of learning
Evidence-based evaluation instruments for course units offer academics quality data, useful for continual improvement. Placement units are not traditional course units and may require a specific evaluation instrument, of which none seem available. This study commenced the development of a placement evaluation instrument supported by a relevant learning framework. The qualitative study was conducted (n=56) and examined the views of placement stakeholders regarding what attributes of the placement experience should be evaluated. Data were thematically analyzed, leading to a 25 item evaluation instrument. This instrument can be completed by students to evaluate and improve placement experiences and outcomes.
Re-imagining work-integrated learning through slow innovation in higher education
Teresa Swirski, Maree Donna Simpson
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(4), 239-253
work-integrated learning, slow innovation, participatory, values, higher education, social-ecology
Work-integrated learning (WIL) can foster the capabilities of students across diverse sites of practice. Amongst universities, the challenges and opportunities of designing these complex spaces of learning are continually unfolding. The pace of such innovation is often rapid, with careful thought sometimes not taken about how these changes will be sustained, or their impact upon all stakeholders in the rush of implementation. This theoretical paper explores how a more participatory, values-oriented approach can be understood through the introduction of the term 'slow innovation in higher education'. 'WIL Innovation Flow' is presented as a heuristic to frame the challenges, drivers, enablers and well-being which form such arrangements. Critiquing approaches to WIL, how new ideas are implemented and sustained, as well as broader implications invites a reflexive conversation about responsibilities and values. Increasing understanding of these holistic arrangements aims to enhance critical awareness of how WIL is re-imagined within contemporary higher education.
Issue 3
An innovative multidisciplinary model for work placement assessment
Louise Dunn, Mark Schier, Lariane Fonseca
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(3), 135-145
assessment, practices, Industry-Based Learning, multidisciplinary, work-integrated learning
Assessment methods and practices have been identified as a key issue in the delivery of work-integrated learning programs worldwide. Maintaining academic standards, ensuring the relevance and consistency of assessment processes and determining responsibility for assessment are some commonly raised problems. This paper presents a case study of an innovative assessment model developed for application in multidisciplinary workplace settings, which attempts to address some of these issues. The case study is based on an optional 6 or 12 month paid WIL program, available to undergraduate students. The paper discusses the strategy adopted to formulate the model. The assessment tool was trialed in 2010, with positive outcomes reported by academic supervisors from its first application. Key Improvements included an increase in the quality of student reports and greater evidence of graduate attribute development being documented by students. The project outcomes may be useful for other practitioners addressing assessment practices in WIL.
Examining the efficacy of a work-based learning project: Preparing new academics to teach in higher education
Deb Clarke, Anne Llewellynn
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(3), 147-158
academic learning, graduate certificate in university learning and teaching, higher education, quality teaching, work based learning
Tertiary institutions have been called to account for the quality of their learning and teaching through measures such as Course Experience Questionnaires (CEQs). As institutional reputation and funding is linked to student responses, the capacity of academic staff to design and facilitate quality learning opportunities for twenty-first century learners is highly valued and increasingly encouraged by tertiary institutions. To align with the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations' Provision of Professional Development for University Teaching in Australia, Charles Sturt University's new academics are required to enrol in the introductory subject EEL409 of the Graduate Certificate in University Learning and Teaching. The assessment in this subject is informed by the pedagogical theory of Work-based learning (WBL). The purpose of this paper is to report on the efficacy of this assessment in preparing new academics to undertake a teaching role in a higher education context.
Role of work-integrated learning in developing professionalism and professional identity
Franziska Trede
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(3), 159-167
identity, professional identity formation, professionalism, work-integrated learning, critical, participation, dialogues
There is an increasing focus on the student as the nexus of integrating classroom and workplace learning. In the university context students are learners and in the workplace context students are pre-accredited professionals and in both contexts they can be facilitators of peer learning. Student participation in professional roles through workplace learning experiences are opportunities for transformative learning that shape professional identity formation and a sense of professionalism. Drawing on a higher education literature review of professional identity formation and a case study that explored how professionalism was understood, talked about and experienced by lecturers and students, this paper explores the role of work-integrated learning and its place in the curriculum to enhance professional identity development and professionalism.
Self-concept and tacit knowledge: Differences between cooperative and non-cooperative education students
Maureen T.B. Drysdale, Margaret McBeath
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(3), 169-180
cooperative education, tacit knowledge, self-concept, psychological outcomes, school to work transition
The aim of this project was to determine whether there were significant psychological outcome differences between students who pursue cooperative education and students who pursue a traditional non-cooperative education program. More specifically, the goal was to examine the relationship between co-op, self-concept, and tacit knowledge-practical knowledge acquired through informal means. Participants, undergraduate cooperative (n = 2236) and non-cooperative education (n = 1390) students in all years of study and from all academic disciplines, completed an online survey measuring three domains of self-concept and five areas of tacit knowledge. Results indicated that while university co-op students demonstrated higher levels of math and academic self-concept, their scores on measures of tacit knowledge were comparable, and in some instances, slightly lower than their non-co-op peers. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Issue 2
Overcoming inconsistencies in placement assessment: The case for developmental assessment centers
Vanessa Sturre, Kathryn von Treuer, Sophie M. Keele, Simon A. Mossophie
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(2), 65-76
Assessment and developmental centers; employability; formative assessment; placements; student development; procedural justice
Placements are integral to many university courses and to increasing student employability skills. Nevertheless, several complications, such as the assessment of placement experiences which often go against the principles of procedural justice, may limit placement effectiveness. For example, procedures are not applied uniformly across students; and evaluations of intangible qualities are susceptible to biases. As a result, effort and learning can be compromised. This paper advocates the use of developmental assessment centers to help solve these shortcomings. Developmental assessment centers are often used in organizations to evaluate capabilities of individuals and to facilitate development. Participants complete a series of work related and standardized tasks. Multiple raters then utilize a systematic approach to evaluate participants on a range of competencies, and consequently present constructive feedback to facilitate learning. Therefore, developmental assessment center principles match the key determinants of procedural justice and thus overcome many problems with traditional placement assessments.
An international comparison of the effect of work-integrated learning on academic performance: A statistical evaluation of WIL in Japan and Hong Kong
Yasushi Tanaka, Kevin Carlson
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(2), 77-88
International comparisons, academic performance, links between WIL and academic learning, statistical evaluation
As the popularity of work-integrated learning (WIL) grows, there is a need for standard and more quantitative methods for evaluating the features of WIL over time as well as between different institutions and over national frontiers. Regression analyses examined WIL's effects on academic performance in the final year of university from data obtained in Japan (2008, 2009, and 2010 graduates) and Hong Kong (2010 graduates). Independent variables included first year GPA, gender, and faculty/school membership. While the WIL systems differed in the two different institutions, both displayed some effects of WIL on final year GPA – Japan for 2008 and 2009, but not 2010 (student participation versus none). For the Hong Kong sample, final year GPA related to the learning outcomes reported by students from their WIL experiences. The results are discussed in terms of the connections between academic learning and WIL, and potential implications for international comparative research.
Mentorship of Hospitality Management students during work-integrated learning
Karla Keating
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(2), 89-102
work-integrated learning; Cape Town Hotel School; mentoring; hospitality studies; co-operative education
Work Integrated Learning (WIL) with specific reference to students in the field of Hospitality Management, is an essential component of the diploma courses offered at the Cape Town Hotel School, a department at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology. Industry mentors responsible for students on WIL programs must understand the significance of student mentorship and guidance, and the impact this can make on the trainee. The literature review highlights the definition of mentorship in the workplace, its importance, and suggestions on what constitutes best practice in the field of mentorship of WIL students. Surveys were conducted among students and industry members and results used to ascertain whether students found the industry mentorship beneficial. On the basis of this investigation, solutions were sought to assist in eliminating problems so far specified and to make recommendations for future study to ensure improvement in the quality of students' experiences whilst on WIL programs.
Reflective assessment in work-integrated learning: To structure or not to structure, that was our question
Bonnie Amelia Dean, Chris Sykes, Shirley Agostinho, Mike Clements
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(2), 103-113
assessment; learning; reflection; work-integrated learning
This paper reports the findings of a research study on whether or not to structure reflective assessment tasks. It examines students' perceived benefits or limitations from structuring reflective assessments in a Commerce WIL program at the University of Wollongong. Sixty-four students over two semesters responded to a questionnaire on their perceptions of structured reflective assessments in the Internship Program. The findings of the self-reported experiences were heterogeneous and indicative of the dominant themes relevancy and flexibility. We suggest these themes stem from a misalignment of assessment and reflective practice. Correcting this misalignment could be achieved by providing a balance of structured and unstructured reflective tasks. This study serves as an important reminder for WIL program administrators to examine their assessment strategy and decisions pertaining to structuring reflective assessments.
'But I thought you were doing that' – Clarifying the role of the host supervisor in experience-based learning
Anna Rowe, Jacqualine Mackaway, Theresa Winchester-Seeto
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(2), 115-134
cooperative education, experience-based learning, host supervisor, learning through participation, reflection, work-integrated learning
The host supervisor plays a vital and complex role in experience-based learning and the various forms of learning through participation (LTP) such as cooperative education, work-integrated learning, work-based learning, practicum and so on. This paper offers a new resource, the Analysis and Reflection Tool, which is designed to assist all stakeholders to understand and better articulate the roles, responsibilities and activities that an individual host supervisor might be expected to fulfil. The resource, based on an extensive review of the literature, presents a conceptual framework that outlines the four key roles commonly expected of host supervisors: support, education, administration/managerial and guardian. The discussion highlights different emphases used in disciplines such as education, nursing and business, and some of the factors that may lead to mismatched expectations of stakeholders. Clearer understanding of stakeholder roles and better communication are important steps to providing adequate support to host supervisors.
Issue 1
Work-integrated learning as a component of the capstone experience in undergraduate law
Judith McNamara, Sally Kift, Des Butler, Rachael Field, Catherine Brown, Natalie Gamble
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(1), 1-12
Work-integrated learning, capstone, final year experience, transition, closure
There is currently little guidance in the Australian literature in relation to how to design an effective capstone experience. As a result, universities often fail to provide students with a genuine culminating experience in the final year of their degree. This paper will consider the key objectives of capstone experiences – closure and transition – and will examine how these objectives can be met by a work-integrated learning (WIL) experience. This paper presents an argument for the inclusion of WIL as a component of a capstone experience. WIL is consistent with capstone objectives in focusing on the transition to professional practice. However, the capacity of WIL to meet all of the objectives of capstones may be limited. The paper posits that while WIL should be considered as a potential component of a capstone experience, educators should ensure that WIL is not equated with a capstone experience unless it is carefully designed to ensure that all the objectives of capstones are met.
Victoria University learning in the workplace and community: Connecting partners, connecting fields, connecting learning
Adam Usher
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(1), 13-22
Work integrated learning, scholarship of teaching and learning, experiential learning
This paper outlines the innovative cross-discipline Learning in the Workplace and Community (LiWC) partnership model being trialled in the Faculty of Arts, Education and Human Development (FAEHD) at Victoria University (VU). The multi-faceted model responds to challenges arising out of a VU commitment to 25 per cent LiWC assessment across all courses. The model is based on the creation of holistic dialectical partnerships with external organisations in triangular learning relationships, consistent with the reconceptualization of twenty-first century learning. It responds to the challenges of developing and articulating authentic learning outcomes across a diverse faculty and scaffolds quality outcomes in scholarship of teaching and learning, graduate capabilities, flexible learning, and curriculum internationalization outcomes. The multi-faceted model also supports all stakeholder learning and maps learning outcomes, which supports the evaluation of progress. Lastly, this paper will also outline the operationalization model, which addresses resourcing issues, such as workload and time constraints, for all stakeholders.
An organization overview of pedagogical practice in work-integrated education
Andrew J. Martin, Malcolm Rees, Manvir Edwards, Levinia Paku
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(1), 23-37
Assessment, pedagogy, competency, student preparation, supervision
Tertiary curriculum design has increasingly emphasized work-integrated learning (WIL) opportunities. This qualitative study provides an overview of a variety of WIL activities at Massey University, New Zealand. Descriptive comments, provided through interviews with fifteen academic supervisors from disciplines ranging from the applied sciences through social sciences to business, education and creative arts, highlight the following six factors to be considered in the resourcing of WIL programs. Themes related to set-up include placement requirements, support, selection, location, and risk management issues. Student preparation involves pre-requisite theoretical knowledge, general career preparation (CV & interview skills) and readiness for practice. With respect to supervision, an on-campus academic mentor and a work-place supervisor are both important to the student. Competencies linked to team work and professional standards include self-confidence, communication and people skills. The teaching pedagogies used include lectures and labs, oral presentations, scenario-based-learning and project work. Assessment involved a learning contract, reflective journal, oral presentation, and final report.
Assessing the power of social media marketing: A cooperative educational learning experience
Karin Reinhard, Lars Satow, Paul Fadil
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(1), 39-53
community of practice, cooperative education, social media marketing, smoking
In 2009, collaboration between students at the Baden-Württemberg Cooperative State University Ravensburg (DHBW Ravensburg) in Germany with a psychologist lead to the development of a marketing plan for the social media website The purpose of this exercise was threefold: to create a sound strategy for the website to deal with future growth and development; to provide students with a unique opportunity to work on the emerging social media platform, a platform that could play a significant role in shaping business practices in the future; and to meet the learning objectives of the DHBW Ravensburg. This paper presents an insight into the venture's stages of development and lists its critical success factors. It also illustrates how a group of students can participate in a sustainable social project, this resulted in the creation of a Community of Practice, which has helped over 10,000 people quit smoking. Finally, the paper shows how social media marketing was successfully implemented into the overall curriculum of the DHBW Ravensburg.
Reflection in sport and recreation cooperative education: Journals or blogs?
Patricia Lucas, Jenny Fleming
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 13(1), 55-64
reflection, cooperative education, journals, blogs, sport
Reflection is a complex process well recognized for its potential to contribute to greater depth of understanding and learning. Within a cooperative education programme reflection facilitates the experiential learning process, as it transforms experience and theory into knowledge and enhances the transfer of theory and practice. The aim of this study was to examine procedural differences in reflection by sport and recreation cooperative education students by comparing two different formats: journals and blogs. A qualitative case study methodology was used. Analysis showed no differences in the frequency of entries, writing structure and level of reflection between the hard copy journals and blogs. In both formats the level of reflection was mostly expressive and of a descriptive nature. Higher levels of interpretation and analysis were rarely evident. It is recommended that further development of strategies, such as rubrics and frameworks, for improving the preparation and engagement of students in reflection are required.
Volume 12 (2011)
Issue 3
Book review: Research Methods in Education, 7th Edition
Karsten E. Zegwaard, Richard K. Coll
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12, Book Review, 147-148
Louis Cohen, Lawrence Manion, Keith Morrison
This book seeks to give a comprehensive overview of methods used in educational research. Previous editions of this book were very well received and highly regarded, with the 7th edition being much anticipated. This book will serve as a very useful and informative resource for all educational researchers, whether be a developing researcher or a well-established researcher.
Program evaluation in co-operative education: A dearth of standards?
Leigh Deves
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12(3), 149-162
evaluation, program evaluation, responsive evaluation, utilisation
In reviewing the application of program evaluation in the field of co-operative education, this paper identifies basic deficiencies in research studies indicative of a misconception about the nature of evaluation – specifically the failure to apply standards and criteria. After discussing concept of evaluation, the paper explicates several ideas, approaches and models fundamental to evaluative practices, with particular attention to program evaluation in the context of co-operative education. The intention of this, and a subsequent paper that draws upon these models, is to assist practitioners substantiate claims of benefit attributed to cooperative education.
A regional WIL model: Sharing a new approach
Bonnie Cord, Graham Bowrey, Mike Clements
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12(3), 163-174
accounting students; internship; reflection; student learning; work-integrated learning
As work-integrated learning (WIL) becomes embedded in the higher education sector, it presents an unprecedented opportunity for practitioners to learn from one another. The challenges of implementing a WIL program are widely known among the WIL community. These challenges often relate to the flexibility and diversity afforded models both within and between institutions. Many institutions have begun internally sharing practices; however, missing in the literature is circulation of this information to facilitate learning across domains. This paper is positioned in the nexus of WIL cross-institutional dissemination. It is hoped that this paper will achieve two aims, the dissemination and application of an Australian regional WIL model. First, a regional Internship Program is detailed through the key areas of purpose, pedagogy, processes, design and assessments. Second, application of the model is offered through an empirical examination of students' reflections.
A regional WIL model: Sharing a new approach Interrogating the goals of work-integrated learning: Neoliberal agendas and critical pedagogy
Jessica Johnston
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12(3), 175-182
critical pedagogy; liberal arts; neoliberalism; qualitative; work-integrated learning (WIL)
Neoliberalism provides the grounding discourse for current alliances between universities and businesses. Work-integrated learning (WIL) within the university environment, where students learn about themselves and the world-of-work, is well-suited to this current global economic discourse, and is seen as a valuable asset to vocationally oriented subjects such as engineering, medicine, education and business. What happens, however, when a pilot in Bachelor of Arts internship, grounded within the language of Paulo Freire and critical pedagogy, confronts neoliberal agendas and the language and practices of a market-based economy? This paper, based on research with seventeen participants in a New Zealand university pilot Bachelor of Arts internship program, documents the power of neoliberalism. Participants reproduced neoliberal agendas in their description of themselves, their socio-location and their future goals.
Optimizing opportunities to learn during practicum: Developing collaborative partnerships between the university and school
Helen Villers, Vivienne Mackisack
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12(3), 183-194
school-university partnerships, collaboration, practicum
This article reports on a collaboration between a university lecturer and a school-based coordinator at one school as they sought to reframe the final practicum of a three year teacher education degree. The study, as part of a larger project, involved the development and implementation of a partnership model. While the model developed was successful in terms of opportunities to optimize professional learning and strengthen the links between the school and university, it was found that the time needed to achieve the goals of a professional and academic partnership was substantial. The positioning of the university and the school in partnership during the practicum was central to the quality and effectiveness of this project but the success of such a partnership cannot be assumed. This study has resulted in renewed understanding and respect for our separate and collaborative responsibilities in supporting student teachers to learn about teaching, while teaching.
An integrated model for the evaluation of work placements
Kathryn von Treuer, Vanessa Sturre, Sophie Keele, Janet McLeod
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12(3), 195-204
work-integrated learning; placements; evaluation; triangulation; constructive alignment; competencies
A fundamental purpose of university education is to enhance the skills of students. Recently there has been an increasing focus within the Australian higher education system to embed a greater amount of work-integrated learning (WIL) into the curriculum. The evaluation of different types of WIL is important, as is its improvement through evidence-based decisions. Researchers and theorists have been able to extend and develop theories (such as constructive alignment) and processes (such as the triangulation method) to inform work placement evaluation. These methods are not always used concurrently, and the complexity of work placements, and the large variation within these, may be reasons why no consistent evaluation measure has been refined. A neglected key stakeholder in formal evaluation process of work placements (particularly when the goal is graduate employability) is the recent course graduate. Here, we propose an integrated framework for evaluation of work placements that incorporates involvement of recent graduates.
Values, ethics and empowering the self through cooperative education
Matthew Campbell, Karsten E. Zegwaard
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12(3), 205-216
professional ethics; value education; professionalism; critical moral agents
Following the recent global financial crisis and the collapse of major organisations such as Lehman Brothers, and the earlier corporate failings of Enron and HIH, there has been a shift of focus towards the role of ethics education in the formation of business professionals. In other professional settings, such as policing and medicine, similar major crises have highlighted the significance of the early development of ethical practice in emerging professionals. This paper considers the nature of professional ethics for an emerging professional, arguing that professional ethics should be a key factor in cooperative education programs. The paper considers the role of values and ethics education in empowering the emerging professional to shape and change their workplace. Building on this argument, the paper suggests foundational elements of an approach to professional ethics in cooperative education programs concluding with a suggested research path for further exploration of the content and nature of such an approach.
Issue 2
Challenges facing technical institute graduates in practical skills acquisition in the Upper East Region of Ghana
Adam Dasmani
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12(2), 67-77
practical skills training; competency-based training; technical vocational education and training; hands-on-experience; industrial attachment
The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the challenges confronting technical institute graduates in practical skills acquisition in the Upper East Region of Ghana. The descriptive survey was used for the study. Four research questions guided the study. The simple random and purposive sampling technique was used. A sample size of 434 was drawn from the two municipalities where the technical institutes are located. Data were collected through the use of a questionnaire which was based on a 4-point Likert scale. Pre-testing was conducted with 24 respondents until its internal consistency reliability coefficient produced a value of 0.7018. The data gathered were organized using descriptive statistical analysis. The arithmetic mean was used with the decision point put at 2.50. The study revealed that inadequate supply of instructional materials, large class sizes, inadequate training facilities, weak linkages with local industries for hands-on-experience for both instructors and trainees lead to ineffective and inefficient training of students while emphasis is placed on passing final examination. This inadequacy in preparation for the job market brought workplace challenges to the graduates. Recommendations made are for stakeholders to complement the government's effort in the provision of training resources; students to be encouraged to purchase their own basic tools with girls given special packages; the institution of effective industrial attachment schemes that will enable students to identify and gain practical knowledge required for the workplace through hands-on experience in local organizations, improvement in instructional quality through instructor training initiatives through pre-service and in-service modes, and the introduction of a tool-acquisition scheme to assist students purchase and own basic tools.
WIL and generic skill development: The development of business students' generic skills through work-integrated learning
Brett Freudenberg, Mark Brimble, Craig Cameron
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12(2), 79-93
work-integrated learning, generic skills, professional development, graduate attributes, employability
Higher education stakeholders have expressed growing concern about teaching and learning performance and outcomes in business education. The emerging gap between graduate attributes and what industry requires not only refers to the lack of employment readiness of students, but also their generic skills. One technique that can assist in improving students' development of generic skills is work-integrated learning (WIL). WIL presents a challenge both in its formation and implementation for an Australian higher education system characterised by limited resources, large and diverse student cohorts, and the ever-present 'publish or perish' paradigm that draws lecturers' attention away from teaching and learning activities. To address this concern, a professional development program (the 'PD Program') was developed. The PD Program is integrated into a business degree program and is designed to systematically develop students' learning, employment and generic skills, and supplement their theoretical studies. This article details the procedures that have been developed, and provides preliminary evidence on the impact of the first part of the PD Program on students' generic skill development over 12 months. It is argued that those students involved in the PD Program demonstrate significant gains in both their generic skills and associated recognition of the importance of generic skills development to their studies and professional lives compared to students who did not participate in the PD Program. These results highlight the potential gain for universities from investing the necessary resources to develop WIL opportunities for their students to assist in the development of generic skills.
Integration of eportfolios into cooperative education: Lessons learnt
Keryn McDermott, Sonja Gallagher
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12(2), 95-101
eportfolios, cooperative education, Mahara, implementation, training
This paper documents the process of integrating eportfolios into a cooperative education programme from the multidisciplinary perspectives of the School of Languages and Social Sciences at Auckland University of Technology. It identifies the crucial components of effectively initiating an eportfolio in an educational context as well as the barriers to its uptake. Significant issues are analysed: the introduction of the new technology, variation of information technology literacy, time demands, adequacy of training, software challenges, the extent of technical support for students, and the development of models. Finally, new strategies to strengthen the establishment of an eportfolio culture are considered and future developments identified.
Student enfranchisement in business undergraduate studies
Gary Marchioro, Maria M. Ryan, Helen Cripps
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12(2), 103-110
Student outcomes, employability skills and teamwork
Aligning business undergraduate programs with industry skill and work requirements is reshaping higher education. This approach is now an acknowledged and strategic initiative to react to business demands in the education sphere. The framework for learning generic skills has been well developed and documented in reference to employer groups and articulated through many university programs. However, the development, monitoring and evaluation of the uptake of these skills using student views are not well documented. This paper presents university students' perceptions of their personal generic skills capabilities. The literature addresses the need for these skills to be inclusive of personal attributes in conjunction with requisite technical abilities. Clearly defining and understanding these personal attributes has been a challenge for educators. The paper offers student feedback to further develop our understanding of the specific skills required in the work place from students' perspectives.
Focus group discussions using business students were conducted at the completion of a client project that involved creating a strategic business plan. Overall results stressed the pivotal role of client contact and a more realistic learning environment created via work experience. Students stated that traditional assessments did not create a level of enthusiasm and interest to learn when compared to the client work project. In addition, students noted that working in a team, for a real client and with real deadlines highlighted the necessity for personal skills development. The results from this study will be merged with data collected on employability skills to develop a framework to monitor the development of student skills across a defined study period. The framework is designed to assist students to be responsible for their own employability skills development. Students should engage in both academic content requirements and in their own personal development process within a monitored and self managed framework. The transference of personal attributes and skills is reshaping academic practice in course development and has added a new dimension to teaching and learning.
Work-integrated learning workloads: The realities and responsibilities
Merrelyn Bates
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12(2), 111-124
academic workloads; work-integrated-learning; workload allocation
The delivery of work-integrated learning (WIL) courses involves university academic and professional staff in specific duties, many of which are outside of the scope of the traditional categories used by universities to determine equitable workloads for academic and administrative personnel. This paper draws on an investigation in a metropolitan university in Australia and records how it is beginning to arrive at appropriate ways to do this. A survey tool was utilised to identify the specific workload demands on staff who worked with WIL courses. The data provided information that confirmed the complexity of the work and also showed that there was a gap between the reality of the workload and the allocation provided. A number of recommendations have been made as a way forward. Further research is recommended that could include the perspectives of students and organisational supervisors reporting on the level of academic staff member support and supervision.
Collaborative delivery of work-integrated learning to Indigenous Australians in a remote community
Cecil A.L. Pearson, Sandra Daff
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12(2), 125-145
Indigenous Australians, vocational programme, mining employment
Australian universities have demonstrated heightened investment in the concept of work-integrated learning (WIL) as a strategy for enriching student experiences while providing pathways leading to better employment opportunities. These endeavours are mainly for enrolled post-secondary students, both local and international, and managed by academic staff of universities that are sited in urban centres enabling linkages to industry. The content of this paper describes a vocational educational programme for Indigenous Australians with elementary and lower secondary school experience. This programme embraces all the various forms of WIL, is undertaken in a remote locality in northern Australia, and although the key objectives of the programme are closely aligned with Australian university WIL-cored courses (i.e., enrichment, employment), a salient difference is university academic personnel and staff of other registered training companies travel to the remote industry centre to deliver the programme content to the participants. Data from the programme, now approaching its fourth year, are presented and discussed to reveal challenges and opportunities for industry, academia, and the community. A concluding section advances the initiative as a promising alternative to existing traditional models, which has potential to substantially improve Indigenous Australian employment levels and lessen the persistently reported socioeconomic disadvantages of Indigenous communities in remote Australia.
Issue 1
Assessing for work integrated learning experiences: A pre-service teacher perspective
Jeanne Maree Allen, Deborah Peach
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12(1), 1-17
assessment, practicum, pre-service teacher education, role strain, school-university partnership, symbolic interactionism, teacher education program, theory-practice
A critical aspect of the debate about work integrated learning in the university context is the blurring of boundaries and responsibilities in terms of student learning. In an Australian pre-service teacher education program this blurring of boundaries is apparent in stakeholder tensions about the nature and role of assessment during the practicum. In the study reported in this paper, students responded positively to the content of assessment tasks but maintained that their efforts to implement the associated planning in the workplace were stymied because of disparate understandings between university and school staff about the purpose of the task.
Communal reflections on the workplace: Locating learning for the legal professional
Carolyn Woodley, Scott Beattie
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12(1), 19-30
learning in the workplace, blogging, legal identities
There is an increased public expectation that Australian universities should assume responsibility for ensuring that their graduates are work-ready. Victoria University (VU) in Melbourne has implemented a commitment to Learning in the Workplace and Community (LiWC) which requires that 25 percent of all courses be assessed by situated learning. Workplace training has a long tradition in legal education. The real work environment is seen as basic to the training of legal professionals, through legal clinics, post-degree practical legal training and apprenticeship models such as articled clerkship. In the Bachelor of Laws degree at VU, typical of many law degrees, work placements are often extra-curricular and so have been invisible in terms of measurable learning outcomes or measurable LiWC components of a course. Law in Practice (LiP) is a unit of study that accredits the workplace experience and identifies and assesses the learning that occurs in the legal workplace. We argue that the significance of the 'de-situated' online space for both individual reflection and peer interaction is central to the syncretization of various sites of learning. As well as reporting on the curriculum design of the online resources, the discussion will draw on generalized analysis of student journals to report on student responses to LiWC as a learning experience enhanced through personal and social reflection in online discussion.
Can collaboration and competition co-exist? Building a cross-institutional community of practice
Kathryn Hay
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12(1), 31-38
New Zealand, social work, cooperative learning, community of practice
This paper is an exploratory case study into the opportunities for and constraints on collaboration in a sub-committee of social work fieldwork coordinators in New Zealand. It considers the potential for collaboration in a competitive environment, not only in terms of the tertiary institutional framework but also in respect of limited available placements for social work students. As well as these competitive arrangements, key factors that are affecting collaboration in this community of practice include institutional constraints such as workloading and resourcing; protectionism of institutional materials; frequent turnover of fieldwork staff; and limited leadership. These factors affect the motivation and commitment of the existing members. The study is intended to inform the future direction of the sub-committee as well as provide some of the lessons learned for other disciplinary networks working in the cooperative education domain who may be considering the establishment of a national, cross-institutional community of practice.
Nurturing a cross-institutional curriculum planning community of practice
Susanne M. Owen, Ieva Stupans, Greg Ryan, Leigh M. Mckauge, Jim Woulfe, Christine Ingleton
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12(1), 39-50
community of practice, experiential placement, professional development
This paper focuses on academic skill-building through using cross-institutional collaborative approaches in developing quality learning and assessment tasks for experiential placements. A curriculum planning template was used for the collaborative work, with materials developed being disseminated on a specially designed online repository website. Results, analyzed within a community of practice framework, indicate the activities. There is potential evident for building a more mature community of practice given the value of the collaborative learning process involved. This would need additional opportunities and leadership over an extended timeline. Some longer term changes in curriculum planning and impacts on wider networks are also evident. This case study provides a model which is relevant across all disciplines and which highlights professional learning occurring through collaborative academic work focused on relevant practice.
Business students' experience of community service learning
Ide Clinton, Theda Thomas
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12(1), 51-66
Community engagement, community service learning, generic skills, graduate attributes, reflections
Community service learning is the name given to the integration of community service into students' courses. Community service learning can be seen as a subset of work-integrated learning. Most universities include service to the community in their mission statements. The purpose of service learning is to help the community while also helping students to gain professional skills that they might need in the future. Industry requires university graduates to be equipped with technical knowledge and also with graduate capabilities/attributes and/or generic skills such as communication, teamwork and problem-solving skills. This paper explores business students' experience of service learning in the community and investigates the attributes that students report they have achieved from their experience. The research argues that service learning can be used to develop the attributes required by university and for industry. The paper describes how the community service learning subject is offered at Australian Catholic University (ACU) in Melbourne, Australia. A content analysis was undertaken of the students' reflective reports in order to determine the skills that the students recorded that they have developed through their experience. The findings provide insight into the perceptions of students regarding their community engagement experience and how this links to the graduate attributes that the university is trying to develop in students. Billett's framework for effective incorporation of work integration learning has been used to make recommendations regarding the outcome of community service learning at ACU. Overall, the community service was a positive experience for business students, increasing their confidence and their ability to work with others.
Volume 11 (2010)
Issue 3
Special Issue: Work Integrated Learning (WIL): Responding to Challenges

Guest Editor: Matthew Campbell
Chief Editor: Dr Karsten Zegwaard
Teacher education in a remote community: Learning on the job
Wendy Giles
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 11(3), 57-65
Australia; indigenous; remote; teacher education
As part of the Commonwealth-funded project, Growing Our Own, Charles Darwin University, in partnership with the Darwin Catholic Education Office, is delivering a preservice education degree program to remote indigenous communities. This paper employs a case study approach to investigate how the program is operating in one of the communities, using examples from the Wadeye local context. In remote community schools, there is a high turnover of staff each year. In addition, there are very few indigenous teachers, although nearly every classroom has an indigenous Teacher Assistant, particularly in the bilingual schools. There are other connected issues, such as school attendance statistics and providing role models for young people.
In order to build a more sustainable staff and increase the number of indigenous teachers from within the local community, lecturers from Charles Darwin University travel to five remote communities each week of the school year to deliver preservice teacher education to small groups of teacher assistants. Because they already work in classrooms every day, their ability to take a whole day for their university studies is only possible because of cooperation from their mentor teacher and the school. The program is designed to link closely with the daily work the teacher assistants are already doing in their classrooms. The learning tasks and assessment items are planned to complement and enrich their practice in the local environment, and to reposition them from being seen as teacher assistants to teachers. In this truly work-integrated learning model, the students' daily work is essential to their studies.
'But how do we assess it?' An analysis of assessment strategies for learning through participation (LTP)
Theresa Winchester-Seeto, Jacqueline Mackaway, Debra Coulson, Marina Harvey
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 11(3), 67-91
assessment, cooperative education, experience-based learning, learning through participation, work-integrated learning, Australia
Assessment is a critical endeavour with implications for students, universities, industry and the wider community. The measurement of student learning, however, presents many challenges, particularly in the context of cooperative education, work-integrated learning, work-based learning, service learning and other models of learning through participation (LTP). This paper offers a new resource, the Strategies Analysis Tool, designed to assist practitioners make informed choices about the strategies they use to assess student achievement in LTP. The resource is based on an extensive review of the relevant literature and addresses six key aspects of learning in LTP. Strategies for assessing student learning may include particular approaches or specific tools and instruments. These strategies have been examined to establish their strengths for the designated purpose and potential problems or considerations that practitioners may need to take into account before or while using them. The resource features six tables with each aspect of learning and its associated assessment strategies presented separately. A discussion highlights some of the main issues concerning assessment in this arena: the use of portfolios; the role of the host supervisor; workload; reflection; and the challenges associated with assessing the less well defined aspects of learning. Finding appropriate assessment strategies is a significant factor in ensuring the sustainability of experience-based education in universities.
The potential of e-Portfolio – enhancing graduate employability in a professional program
Maree Dinan-Thompson, Michelle Lasen, Ruth Hickey
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 11(3), 93-102
e-Portfolio, WIL, professional standards, graduate employability
While professional courses have had a long association with work-integrated learning (WIL), issues around graduate employability, and insufficient interaction between university and industry learning and assessment, have led more recently to greater investment in WIL in the Higher Education sector (Goulter, 2007, Patrick et al., 2008). Guided by WIL principles of the Innovative Research Universities (2008), as well as notions of criticality in WIL (Billett, 2009) and hybrid spaces in teacher education (Zeichner, 2010), this paper explores the potential of an e-Portfolio to enhance graduate employability among pre-service teachers in a one-year professional program. The authors analyzed transcripts of interviews with key stakeholders — including Professional Experience Advisory Committee (PEAC) members, pre-service teachers, and program lecturers — as well as policy, curriculum, and course accreditation documents, and pre-service teacher work samples. Findings support the potential of the e-Portfolio as a learning, assessment, and employment tool – a platform to facilitate exploration, construction, presentation, and critique of evidence (Bloomfield, 2009) against the graduate professional standards (QCT, 2006). While findings point to the e-Portfolio as both product and process (Bloomfield), they also reveal the need to further consider its current articulation with issues of policy, pedagogy, and curriculum, as well as to engage more broadly with stakeholders to determine how to enhance inputs and outcomes (Oliver, 2010).
Bridging the gap between learning at work and in the classroom through a structured post-placement seminar
Jo-Anne Maire
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 11(3), 103-113
evaluation intervention study, chiropractic students, clinical placement
This educational research study describes the evaluation of the effectiveness of a structured seminar designed to facilitate reflective practice surrounding an overseas clinical placement for chiropractic students.
Twenty-two chiropractic students commencing their fifth and final year of the course in Perth, Australia participated in a voluntary clinical placement in Siliguri, India.
Four repeat structured seminars were run with groups of fifteen students two weeks after the students returned from India. Each group was comprised of students who participated in the overseas clinical placement and students in the same cohort who remained in their clinical placement in Australia. The seminar was designed to allow the students who participated in the overseas placement to share their experiences and, through this reflective practice, to identify how the overseas experiences might apply more widely.
A survey, designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the seminars, was administered two weeks later to thirty-six students: seventeen overseas placement students, nineteen students who remained in Australia. The response rate was seventy percent for the placement students and fifty-six percent for non-placement students. Descriptive statistics and inductive qualitative analysis were used in the evaluation of the survey results.
Ninety-one percent of respondents reported that the seminar was a useful exercise. Ninety-four percent of those who participated in the overseas placement stated that the seminar assisted them to reflect on their practice experiences. Responses by both groups indicated that the learning experiences generated by the seminars appeared to be associated with conceptual, procedural and dispositional dimensions of learning.
This study demonstrated that a structured post-placement seminar, by engaging students in listening, debate and personal reflection, can extend and transform their understanding of chiropractic practice, and promote conceptual, procedural and dispositional development.
'Tools of trade': Supporting consistency in processes related to work-integrated learning (WIL)
Catherine Hungerford, Emily Molan, Ben Gilbert, Jane Kellet
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 11(3), 115-124
assessment, consistency, graduate attributes, work-integrated learning, interdisciplinary, inter-professional
This paper reports on an inter-professional collaboration undertaken to improve the WIL experience for students, industry stakeholders, and academics. An interdisciplinary project was undertaken in a small metropolitan university in Australia to address issues identified in the processes related to WIL for students of the health-related professions. Outcomes of the project include the development of a generic tool or guide to support improvement in the preparation for, ongoing support during, and assessment of WIL across the disciplines. While further trialing of the tool is necessary to measure benefits across the disciplines and professions, initial results are positive. The tool is now providing an important means of optimizing the outcomes of the WIL experience for all stakeholders. This, in turn, demonstrates the benefits of inter-professional and interdisciplinary cooperation for those seeking to facilitate the best possible WIL experience for students, industry representatives, and academics alike.
What's in it for me? – Re-discovering the 'client' in client-centered learning
Katharina Wolf
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 11(3), 125-135
clients, client-centered learning, industry, industry partnerships, public relations, real life cases
Whilst the use of real life clients is becoming increasingly popular, particularly within the business school context, the focus has traditionally been on how industry representatives can enrich students' learning experiences. However, by doing so we have essentially ignored one of the key stakeholders in the education process: Industry collaboration. In the course design, this is a promise frequently made to attract students, demonstrating the real world validity of the program and thereby essentially gaining a marketing advantage for the course itself (Rundle-Thiele, Bennett, & Dann, 2005); however, the benefits and shortfalls for industry partners involved in these types of arrangements have been largely ignored.
This paper argues that it is time to pay more attention to the 'client' perspective in industry-integrated learning opportunities. By applying the WIIFM (What's in it for me?) Effect to 12 client-centered learning experiences, gained over a period of three and a half years, the author has identified six distinctive client types, which characterize different approaches to, and perceptions of, client-centered learning. Further analysis has resulted in the emergence of a hybrid type, which characterizes what the author refers to as the ideal industry partner. The paper concludes that client-centered learning is not a safe alternative to teacher-centered activities. However, it can be very rewarding, as long as the client's motivation is thoroughly considered and understood at the outset of the project.
Aligning reflection in the cooperative education curriculum
Marina Harvey, Debra Coulson, Jacqueline Mackaway, Theresa Winchester-Seeto
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 11(3), 137-152
cooperative education; reflection; curriculum alignment; participation; service learning; work-integrated learning.
Reflection is widely used in cooperative education to support learning and praxis; however, a review of the literature reveals limited empirical evidence for the correlation between reflection and positive student learning outcomes. As with any 'wicked' issue, there are multiple positions on reflection. A substantial body of anecdotal evidence, together with evidence based on student satisfaction and self-reporting does, however, indicate the value of reflection for learning, particularly when transparently aligned with the curriculum. This paper draws from the evidence for the practice of reflection to present new models, informed by theory and developed as a result of this research, to support the alignment of reflection in the cooperative education curriculum.
Supporting Exercise Science students to respond to the challenges of an authentic work-integrated learning (WIL) assessment
Deb Clarke, Chelsea Litchfield, Eric Drinkwater
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 11(3), 153-167
authentic assessment, case study, problem-based learning, professional partnerships, work-integrated learning.
Work integrated learning (WIL) is increasingly more evident in higher education programs throughout Australia, as it offers valuable experiences for students by providing them with opportunities to translate theory into practice and, as they assume increasing responsibility in the workplace, transition from student to professional practitioner. The benefits of WIL are well documented and attest to preparing work-ready graduates by developing both generic and explicit career skills that position them positively to gain future employment. The purpose of this research was to investigate the nature and degree of support required by Bachelor of Exercise Science students to successfully undertake a WIL action research project in blended mode, during a 360 hour professional placement. Using semi-structured telephone interviews, students who have completed the subject in its prior format, were invited to design structures and systems that, in their view, would scaffold their learning and aid in their completion of the WIL subject assessment requirements. Participant data revealed three emerging themes of support: organizational, pedagogical, and interpersonal. In response to the research results, an online learning environment has been created that will developmentally scaffold student learning, assist students to participate as emerging professionals in the exercise science occupational cultural community, and successfully action their disciplinary, practical, interpersonal and reflective knowledge in authentic professional contexts.
Issue 2
Book Review: Work Integrated Learning: A Guide to Effective Practice
Karsten E. Zegwaard
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 11, Book Review, 27-28
Lesley Cooper, Janice Orrell, Margaret Bowden
This book seeks to give a practical guide to managing a work integrated learning programme in the education sector. The authors saw the need for the book in response to an increasing demand for work integrated learning programmes, and have been able to give a comprehensive overview of WIL, including informative insight helpful for practioners seeking to develop or improve their WIL programmes.
Scaffolding patient counselling skills in Australian university pharmacy programs
Ieva Stupans, Susanne Owen, Greg Ryan, Jim Woulfe, Leigh McKauge
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 11(2), 29-37
competencies, counseling, experiential placements, pharmacy students, scaffolding.
This paper presents the results of an appraisal of the extent of, and approaches to, scaffolding for development of counseling skills of pharmacy students across Australian universities. There were two stages in the work. The first involved mapping of university pharmacy program and examination of placement handbooks from all but two of the fourteen universities offering pharmacy programs in Australia. The second involved a series of consultations and interviews with key representatives of various pharmacy stakeholder groups and individuals at a national level and in each state and territory of Australia. University academics and preceptors described significant roles in supporting students to build these skills especially within the pre-placement and during placement phases. Across Australian pharmacy schools, scaffolding for development of counseling skills through a range of approaches is evident. There appears to be support for this approach from both students and preceptors. The results of this research will have relevance both for other health professional programs and other programs which include experiential workplace learning with respect to the preparation of students for workplace activities.
Out of the too hard basket: Promoting student's safety in cooperative education
Michael Emslie
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 11(2), 39-46
Australia, student safety, violence prevention, work integrated learning
There is general agreement in the literature on the essential role of university field educators and agency-based staff in preparing students for witnessing and experiencing violence during workplace-based placements and supporting them when it takes place. Models for promoting student's safety as well as their recovery from violent incidents while in the field usually emphasize the responsibilities of these individuals. Subsequently, frameworks aimed at reducing and responding to violence towards students in cooperative education typically focus on a narrow range of strategies that include university faculty policy and procedures, on-campus teaching modules, training for university field educators, and consultation with agencies regarding their safety policies, procedures and training. Such approaches fail to take into account reports that university and agency field educators are often under-resourced, overworked and subject to violence themselves or do not see addressing student's safety in the field as their responsibility. Suggested measures also generally overlook the critical role of other key stakeholders. This paper argues that efforts aimed at addressing violence in work-integrated learning should be designed on models of violence prevention that move away from the individualized responses and recognise as fundamental, integrated, collaborative and coordinated institutional arrangements. There is a need to develop a national framework in which the responsibilities of tertiary institutions, governments, professional associations and employers to adequately govern, resource and equip academic and industry field education staff, so they are in a position to meet their pedagogical, legal and ethical obligations towards students, are paramount.
Enhancing cooperative education placement through the use of learning management system functionalities: A case study of the Bachelor of Applied Management program
Sharleen Howison, Glenn Finger
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 11(2), 47-56
cooperative education placement, learning management systems, work integrated learning, reflection.
This exploratory case study researched the benefits of integrating information and communication technologies (ICT) to enhance cooperative education placement (CEP) for the course coordinator and the learners in their third and final year of study in the Bachelor of Applied Management program. The findings supported an addendum to the Kolb's current model of learning to incorporate reflection into an adapted three stage model. This was due to participants in the study lacking adequate reflective practice during their placement. The study reported that participants need to be engaged in reflective practice to achieve deeper learning, enabled through more interactive discussion online coupled with regular contact by supervisors and the coordinator to strengthen the CEP experience. Suggestions are made for exploring other forms of ICT within a blended learning conceptualization to engage learners through ICT functionalities as well as face-to-face contact.
Issue 1
Book Review: Higher Education in East Asia: Neoliberlaism and the Professoriate
Richard K. Coll
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 11, Book Review, 1-2
Gregory S. Poole, Ya-chen Chen
This book provides insights into the lived experiences of academics in East Asia (the Professoriate). In this review I describe the theme and context, of the book and consider what it has to say about work-integrated learning in East Asia.
Introducing corporate social responsibility as component in Cooperative Education: Results from a student research project in Germany and the United States supported by Intel Corporation
Karin Reinhard, Thomas Osburg, Rosemary Townsend
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 11(1), 1-12
Corporate social responsibility, partnership within cooperative education, cooperative state university, communication by companies, student research.
This paper explores the nature of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and its relevance to industry and education. As more organizations are showing interest in adopting CSR practices, academic institutions such as the Baden-Württemberg Cooperative State University Ravensburg are exploring approaches in which CSR can be included in their curriculum. Therefore the Baden-Württemberg Cooperative State University Ravensburg has studied selected organizations to determine their current practice related to CSR and based on their findings found that it is important to include CSR into their curriculum. More organizations internationally and nationally are showing concern for adherence to the ethical dimension of business, and with the new focus of the Baden-Württemberg Cooperative State University towards conducting academic research; this study becomes even more valuable.
Restructuring the Bachelor of Exercise Science degree to meet industry needs
Gregory Reddan, Glenn Harrison
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 11(1), 13-25
restructuring, exercise/psychological science, industry needs, physical education
This paper examines the restructuring of the Bachelor of Exercise Science at Griffith University, Queensland, Australia over a fifteen-year period. The resulting changes have provided students with an improved educational experience through greater choice in course selection to meet their individual academic objectives. This case study emphasizes the importance of regular reviews to ensure university programs remain responsive to student interests and, most importantly, meet the needs of industry and employing groups.
Volume 10 (2009)
Issue 3
Special Issue: 10th Anniversary Edition of the Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education. Selected Papers From the 2008 Biennial Asia-Pacific Conference on Cooperative Education – Manly, Australia

Guest Editors: David Jorgensen, Liz Ruinard & Deborah Peach
The importance of project management documentation in computing students' capstone projects
Kathleen Keogh, Anne Venables
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 10(3), 151-162
Experiential learning, industry standard documentation, project management practice, student teams.
In attempting to integrate classroom studies with professional work practice, many universities include a capstone team project in the final year of their undergraduate computing degrees; the experience is designed to improve upon students' essential technical skills and to help prepare students to become work ready by developing communication and team building skills. The quality of such a learning experience is influenced by the subtle interplays of three key elements: the curriculum, practice and industry standards. At the University of Ballarat the curriculum endorses the practice whereby students adapt industry standard documentation, in particular, the Software Project Management Plan (SPMP), as a mechanism to manage teamwork and organizational processes. Over recent years at the University final year computing students have been surveyed about their project experiences - feedback indicates that the task of preparing and using these management documents has had a positive impact on students' readiness for the workplace.
Fostering student reflection during engineering internships
Susan Doel
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 10(3), 163-176
Engineering, internship, critical reflection, employability, journals.
This paper describes an approach that attempts to enable students to develop and demonstrate appropriate engineering graduate attributes through an industry internship. It also looks at some of the trials and tribulations encountered on the journey. The School of Engineering at the University of Queensland offers a Professional Placement Semester to students in their fourth year, for which students obtain full academic credit. As part of the academic element, students undertake a two unit Professional Development course. The course uses flexible learning methods to encourage students to reflect on their own professional development throughout the placement semester. The cornerstone of the course is the Professional Development log kept by each student in which they record and report work activities whilst at the placement organization. Each week students identify critical learning events in terms of professional development. They must then analyze the most significant of these events using a standard analysis template. For the students, the process aids them in keeping an accurate record of their time on placement as a contribution to future job applications as well as to their assessment. They are also intended to assist in each student's individual growth and learning by providing an avenue for reflexive thought.
Articulating the learning: Professional practice made explicit
Prue Howard
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 10(3), Work-integrated learning, professional practice, preparation, engineering.
The Diploma of Professional Practice at Central Queensland University has been developed to explicitly prepare students in the Bachelor of Engineering (Cooperative Education) program for their industrial work placement, and then to enable them to articulate the learnings from that placement. The Diploma is a compulsory element of the Cooperative Education program, and awarded as the dual award BEng (Co-op)/Dip Prof Prac Eng at graduation. The Diploma of Professional Practice, equips graduates with the knowledge, skills and attributes needed in professional practice and for professional leadership. The combined program is designed around the triple themes of intellectual, social and professional development. A feature of the professional practice program is its integration with the periods of work placement in a professional environment that provides the opportunity to learn and put into practice, professional practice skills. The existing work placements are highly regarded by employers, and this program provides students with the education to maximize the learning occurring in the professional environment. The program is structured with internal courses delivered before and after work placement periods which provide preparation and review of skills that will be put into practice in the work place, as well as reflection on the learning. The program is a generic program providing students with the necessary professional practice skills to go into the placement and the opportunity to reflect upon their experiences in the workplace. It is through this reflective process that the implicit learning from the work placement becomes explicit assessable learning.
Maximizing work-integrated learning experiences through identifying graduate competencies for employability: A case study of sport studies in higher education
Jenny Fleming, Andrew J. Martin, Helen Hughes, Caryn Zinn
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 10(3), 189-201
Cooperative education, practicum or work integrated learning (WIL) experiences aim to develop appropriate competencies that enhance employability. The purpose of this study was to identify employers expectations of key student and graduate competencies, to ensure students are 'WIL ready', and graduates are in turn 'work ready'. A mixed method case study approach included an online quantitative survey of sport industry supervisors and university academic supervisors, and a qualitative open ended survey administered to sport management graduates. Findings indicated that to maximize the WIL experience for students and to enhance employability academic programs within the university need to provide opportunities for students to develop competencies including the ability and willingness to learn, the use of initiative and personal organizational skills. WIL experiences should be designed to allow for students to develop in the areas of communication, self-confidence, relationship building as well as teamwork and cooperation to increase the likelihood of graduate employment.
Generating academic standards and assessment practices in work-integrated learning: A case study from urban and regional planning
Martyn Jones, Eddo Coiacetto, John Jackson, Matthew Coote, Wendy Steele, Trevor Budge, Sara Gall
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 10(3), 203-215
Academic standards, assessment, urban and regional planning, work integrated learning, work placement.
Enhancing academic standards and assessment practices in work integrated learning (WIL) is crucial to securing its place in high quality student learning. Yet, the diverse purposes and perspectives associated with WIL present distinctive challenges to achieving this goal. The paper highlights the issues involved and explores them through a case study from student work placement in urban and regional planning. The study was funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council. The project team comprised members from RMIT University, Griffith University and La Trobe University. Whilst the study focused on one particular industry, the paper explores implications that are transferable to other disciplines and professions. In particular, it seeks to acknowledge the complexity of both the learning outcomes of work placement and the contexts within which that learning occurs.
Incorporating community-based learning in a first-year computing unit
Iwona Miliszewska
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 10(3), 217-227
Community-based learning, computing students, contextual learning, information technology.
This article reports on a practice-based initiative aimed to encourage a broader understanding among first-year computing students of how information technology impinges on every facet of modern economy and society. The initiative sought to strengthen the link between computing studies and the real-life IT needs within the community by responding to the needs of The Victorian Immigrant and Refugee Women's Coalition (VIRWC). VIRWC required Web interfaces to help its patrons access information related to settlement issues such as housing, health, banking, language, and education. To address this need, a community-based learning component was incorporated in a first-year unit of an undergraduate computing course. Students worked in groups on developing Settlement Resource Kits, and wrote a reflective report about their experience. This article describes the development of the community-based learning initiative; outlines its benefits to the stakeholders; and, discusses the challenges associated with its development, implementation, and sustainability.
Internships: Effective work-integrated learning for law students
Judith McNamara
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 10(3), 229-240
Legal education, legal internships, work integrated learning.
Work experience which is integrated into an undergraduate law degree has a vital role to play in assisting law students to develop the skills and attributes they need in order to be effective legal practitioners. Work integrated learning provides a context for students to develop their skills, to see the link between theory and practice and supports students in making the transition from university to practice. The literature in Australian legal education has given little consideration to the design of legal internship subjects (as distinct from legal clinic programs). Accordingly, the design of internship subjects needs to be carefully considered to ensure alignment of learning objectives, learning tasks and assessment. This paper will examine the literature relating to internships, particularly in a legal context, and will propose some principles for the design of legal internships. These principles will be considered in light of an evaluation of a newly designed undergraduate legal internship subject.
Issue 2
Developing a hierarchical structure for assessing cooperative education programs from intellectual capital perspective: A case study in Taiwan
Shyh-Hwag Lee, Ching-Yaw Chen
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 10(2), 57-64
Cooperative education, intellectual capital, analytic hierarchy process, Taiwan.
Prioritization of intellectual capital measurement indicators for business firms under uncertain conditions has been reported. In this study, an experiment was performed to understand the use of intellectual capital for the evaluation of cooperative education program in a vocationally-oriented university. A model of value creation process is proposed to develop the intellectual capital components as the central intangible value of a cooperative education program. Analytic hierarchy process is applied to formulate the intellectual capital measurement indicators of cooperative education program for obtaining higher employment value that rapidly benefits to the employing firms. A case study is empirically explored at Shu-Te University in Taiwan. Preferences of the experts are gathered using a pair-wise comparison to prioritize the intellectual capital measurement indicators for providing a guideline for the effort on cooperative education development. Such an approach, we believe, improves the likelihood of constructing the suitable model of intellectual capital reports as the important evaluation facilitators for each case of cooperative education program to the overall benefit and it may be of interest to more cooperative education practitioners.
Development of a competency-based work-integrated learning program to facilitate science, engineering and technology retention in South Africa as a developing country
Pierre Bonnet
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 10(2), 65-74
Work-integrated learning, competency, science, engineering, technology, universities of technology, South Africa.
Presentations and arguments in this paper support the development of competencies in work-integrated learning, associated with engineering trainees. Competencies developed through this program are intended to facilitate the retention of science, engineering and technology within the workplace in South Africa, as a developing country. The unique program, as developed and conducted, presents a local paradigm shift in academic accreditation, which is based on the learning experiences recorded by the trainee in industry. The training standard in industry is thus established through a mutually exclusive agreement to focus on the trainee and the training in industry through the lens of academia as the qualification awarding entity. Systemic trainee confidence in the higher learning and retention aspects of knowledge is fostered through; learning, teamwork and co-operation and multidisciplinary initiatives to facilitate industrial responsibility and hence competency. The veracity of the program, in its approach and implications, is sharply contrasted against the current system operating in other engineering academic departments within the South African Universities of Technology movement.

The program documents may be obtained by clicking here.
Lessons derived from a work-integrated learning monitoring pilot at a distance higher education institution
Thomas Groenewald
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 10(2), 75-98
Work-integrated learning imperatives, work-based learning, assessment, competence, capabilities, reflection, guidelines for assessors, progress assessment instrument, action research, video conferencing briefing, independent contractors as monitors and mentoring.
The objective of this paper is to share the learning derived from an action research pilot project on the monitoring of work-integrated learning. The South African higher education imperatives are outlined and perspectives on both defined competencies and/or outcomes of assessment are reviewed, as well as the more "artistic" ability derived from unexpected experiences and problem-centred/based learning. Views on developing reflective ability are presented. The research method of entails an outline of the preparation phase, an exposition of the monitoring guidelines and instrument, as well as an explanation of action research. The launch, progression and review phases are then outlined. The findings comprise a synopsis of the qualitative data derived from the monitoring reports submitted, a summary of a focus group discussion held with regional learning facilitation staff, and the reflective perspectives of the central coordinating office staff. The article is concluded with a discussion of key lessons taken from the experience and procedural proposals.
Optimizing learning simulation to support a quinary career development model
Kristen Betts, Martin Lewis, Angela Dressler, Lars Svensson
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 10(2), 99-119
Work-integrated learning, learning simulation, training, online education, blended education, career development, cooperative education, professional development.
In a competitive global economy, career placement and advancement are based on education, training, and the ability to apply knowledge, skills, and experience within dynamic work environments. While education and training provide the foundation for knowledge and skill development, it is through learning simulation and work-integrated learning that students acquire practical experience and engage in professional development while preparing for new careers, career advancement, or career transition. Therefore, this paper presents (a) a quinary career development model designed by faculty and administrators in the United States, South Africa, Australia, and Sweden; (b) an overview of learning simulation to support career development; and (c) learning simulation activities from the four countries that can be integrated into undergraduate and graduate/post-graduate face-to-face, blended/hybrid, and online programs.
Semantic and metaphoric reflection on the training of decentralized staff responsible for supporting students in terms of work-integrated learning: A distance education university scenario
Thomas Groenewald, Mia Le Roux
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 10(2), 121-140
Cooperative education; work-integrated learning imperatives; roleplayer responsibilities; distance education university; decentralized learning service centers; key performance areas; product knowledge; sales skills; good quality standards; constructivist-evaluation method; semantic indicators; metaphors; benefits message.
This article provides both a current and a historical perspective, as well as describing the journey of a distance education institution. It contains a synopsis of the imperatives pertaining to work-integrated learning within higher education in South Africa. The article gives its readers a glimpse of the role of decentralized learner support staff at a distance education university in soliciting potential host organizations and placing students for their prerequisite work-integrated learning. It also contains an overview of a week-long seminar. The research entailed both a semantic and a metaphoric evaluation of the training. The findings include an analysis of semantic indicators of the reflection by participants and a review of the metaphors participants used to express their feelings about the seminar. The article concludes with the benefits message subsequently developed.
Learning in the learning workplace: Tertiary institution staff perceptions
Sharleen Howison, Willie Campbell, Janice Henderson, Stuart Terry
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 10(2), 141-149
Learning; workplace; tertiary; staff.
Australian researchers Chappell and Hawke completed a survey of their tertiary training organizations within Australia in 2006 and 2007. This related to workplace learning within their tertiary environment sector. In 2007, a small research team from Otago Polytechnic recruited participants to complete a two-domain Provider Learning Environment Scale as developed by Chappell and Hawke in Australia. The domains were organizational environment and job complexity. This was implemented across 16 New Zealand tertiary organizations. The aim here was to define the perceptions workplace learning environment in New Zealand. The aim was also to evaluate and compare the results from the Australian research by Chappell and Hawke. On the basis of this, a two domain Provider Learning Environment Scale with 45 questions, using a 5 point Likert scale response system was developed by Chappell and Hawke. This was then repeated and disseminated in 2007 to staff from 16 New Zealand tertiary organizations by way of an online survey. The two domains surveyed, that is, organizational environment and job complexity showed a high level (67%) of agreement with the 45 questions. There was a larger number of academic and teaching staff amongst the respondents. The administration and support staff responses reflected the impact of change on their work practices as being very high. Overall, the level of agreement with the 45 questions was high. Because the respondents were overwhelmingly academic and teaching staff, a more focused exploration of the perceptions of administrative staff may be of value and contribute to the structuring of job complexity and organizational environmental practices within tertiary institutions.
Issue 1
Assessment of a supervised industrial attachment of a technical and vocational teacher education program in Ghana
Francis Donkor, Stanislaus N. Nsoh, Stephen J. Mitchual
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 10(1), 1-17
Technical and vocational education; assessment; workplace supervisors; lecturers; program objectives; supervised industrial attachment; Ghana.
The Technical and Vocational Teacher Education program of the University of Education, Winneba in Ghana, includes a compulsory supervised industrial attachment (SIA). This gives student teachers the opportunity to relate theory to practice and to be well prepared upon completion to prepare their students for success in further education and the workplace. This paper which is part of a larger study that assessed the SIA program focuses on the attainment of program objectives and program usefulness. Data were collected from 13 lecturers, 90 students and 22 workplace supervisors through a self-completion questionnaire. The reported findings were based on four-point Likert-type items relating to the attainment of program objectives (5 items) and program usefulness (5 items). Descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance at 0.05 level of significance and Scheffe′s post hoc test were used to analyze the data. The results showed that lecturers, students and workplace supervisors rated highly elements of program usefulness and the attainment of program objectives. Additionally, there was uniform agreement in the responses of respondents as there were no statistically significant differences in their ratings of all the items relating to attainment of program objectives and program usefulness except for their ratings regarding the opportunity for host organizations to reduce recruitment and training costs of workplace staff during attachment.
Learning in early-career police: Coming into the workplace
Matthew Campbell
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 10(1), 19-28
Policing, professional practice, situated learning, socialization, workplace transition, Australia.
This paper explores the experience of police recruits as they move from the classroom experience to learning on the job. The research presented forms part of a larger study of newcomers to policing in New South Wales, where recruits generally undertake 20 months of university study, with the final 12 months of their study coinciding with their role as a probationary constable. During this period of time the recruits are developing their professional practice and identity through a process of socialization and situated learning. This paper will present findings, using case studies, of the initial experience of new recruits in the policing world to better understand the effectiveness of university–industry partnerships and pedagogical practices in the development of early-career professionals.
Planning and scaffolding for learning in experiential placements in Australian pharmacy schools
Ieva Stupans, Susanne Owen
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 10(1), 29-37
Clinical placement, model, pharmacy, scaffolding, Australia.
Learning within work-integrated and clinical placements is increasingly required for professional accreditation approval of allied health and other university programs, providing a context for students in developing not only the knowledge but also the practical skills and personal attributes of their professions. An Australian Learning and Teaching Council (previously the Carrick Institute) funded 2007 research study was conducted regarding pharmacy experiential placements with the purpose of mapping university programs, analysing handbooks and also consulting with about 250 stakeholders from a range of backgrounds in relation to issues and quality indicators. This paper presents compiled views from a range of stakeholders with reference to scaffolding for learning at the pre-placement, during placement and post-placement phases of experiential placements. It presents a model which may facilitate comprehensive planning and scaffolding for experiential placements by both university academics and preceptors.
Organizational issues and challenges of supervised industrial attachment of a technical and vocational teacher education program in Ghana
Francis Donkor, Stanislaus N. Nsoh, Stephen J. Mitchual
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 10(1), 39-56
Supervised industrial attachment, technical and vocational education and training, technical and vocational teacher education, Ghana.
The Technical and Vocational Teacher Education program of the University of Education, Winneba in Ghana, includes a compulsory supervised industrial attachment. This gives student teachers the opportunity relate theory to practice and to enable them go out to prepare their students for success in further education and the workplace. This paper which is part of a larger study that assessed the supervised industrial attachment focuses on organizational issues and the program's challenges. Data were collected from 13 lecturers, 90 students and 22 workplace supervisors through self-completion questionnaire. The reported findings were based on four-point Likert-type items relating to organizational issues and challenges. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc test. The findings revealed dissatisfaction of stakeholders with weightings of assessment components, the practice of students finding their own placements, program duration, and lack of liaison officer. Among the 10 items on organizational issues, only three produced statistically significant differences in respondents' ratings. The perceived challenges were lack of free access to machines and equipment, amount of money spent traveling to and from the workplace, and time spent on finding placement. Among the five items on challenges, only one produced statistically significant differences in respondents' ratings.
Volume 9 (2008)
Issue 2
Constraints to the effective implementation of vocational education programme in private secondary schools in Port Harcourt Local Government Area.
Suobere T. Puyate
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 9(2), 59-71
Vocational education; private schooling; Nigeria
The main purpose of this study was to identify the constraints to the effective implementation of vocational education program in private secondary schools in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State. The research work was limited to four randomly selected private secondary schools and addressed the following research questions: What students' factors affect the non-implementations of vocational education program in Nigerian private secondary schools?; What facilities factors affect the non-implementations of vocational education program in Nigerian private secondary schools?; What teachers' factors affect the non-implementations of vocational education program in Nigerian private secondary schools?; and, what government /parental factors affect the non-implementations of vocational education program in Nigerian private secondary schools? The main instrument for data collection was a questionnaire administered to about 20% of the target population of teachers (N=24) and students (N=72) in the Rivers State area. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including the sample mean and grand population mean. The findings reveal a dearth of professional and qualified teachers for the teaching of vocational/technical subjects; inadequate infrastructure and equipment in schools; insufficient instructional materials and books in schools; and that schools are generally poorly financed. Two key recommendations are that adequate infrastructure should be provided in schools so that they are properly equipped for functional teaching and learning, and that an 'enlightenment' campaign should be carried out in the society to emphasize the importance of technical and vocational education.
Expanding the realm of best practices in cooperative industry-based learning in information systems and information technology: An inter-institutional investigation in Australian higher education
Ross Smith, David Mackay, Dale Holt, Di Challis
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 9(2), 73-80
Best practice; cooperative learning; higher education; information systems; information technology
The professional fields of information systems and information technology are drivers and enablers of the global economy. Moreover, their theoretical scope and practices are global in focus. University graduates need to develop a range of leadership, conceptual and technical capacities to work effectively in, and contribute to, the shaping of companies, business models and systems which operate in globalised settings. This paper reports a study of the operation of industry-based learning (IBL) at three Australian universities, which employ different models and approaches, as part of a series of investigations of the needs, circumstances and perspectives of various stakeholders (program coordinator, faculty teaching staff, the students, industry mentors, and the professional body). The focus of this paper is a discussion of salient pragmatic considerations in an attempt to conceptualize what constitutes best practice in offering industry-based learning for higher education students in the disciplines of information systems and information technology.
New Zealand entrepreneurs' views of business success: Curriculum implications
Ray Meldrum
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 9(2), 81-90
Entrepreneur; business success; apprentice, intern, learning, curriculum, New Zealand
This report is on part of a research project that asked: How can tertiary education nurture entrepreneurial creativity? Fourteen New Zealand entrepreneurs or associates were asked: Why are you a successful entrepreneur? Their responses establish that business networking is critical for securing advice on specific matters as and when needs arise, and effective communication with teams and customers is essential. High value was placed on personal attributes. One set was variously described as resilience, persistence, toughness and tenacity. Another focused on the need for being enthusiastic and fresh about a dream or cause, and on the importance of simplicity of focus. It is concluded that entrepreneurs love the thrill of the 'roller coaster ride', and that the classroom can be too safe a place for their learning. It is proposed that work-integrated learning through an apprenticeship or internship offers an opportunity for being in a space that ignites entrepreneurial passion and nurtures resourcefulness.
Addressing the weak link: Enhancing support for the sponsors of student placements in cooperative education
Keryn McDermott
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 9(2), 91-111
Cooperative education; student placements; work-based learning; partnerships; training; New Zealand
This paper reports the findings of a research project designed to enhance the relationship of a tertiary education provider with the work-based supervisors of student placements in a cooperative education program. The first phase of the research project surveyed these supervisors regarding their experiences and perceptions of the co-op program. Whilst the responses were generally positive, most work-based supervisors felt that the university could improve its support and communication. When asked how their co-op experience could be improved, most work-based supervisors agreed that an orientation regarding the purpose and content of the cooperative education process would strengthen their contribution to the program. Subsequently, to better inform the content and style of delivery of a training package as well as exploring in greater depth the perceptions and requirements of participation in the co-op program, interviews were conducted. Thus work-based supervisors had the opportunity to contribute to the development of more effective and substantial links with the university and have input into the design of the orientation package. The findings suggested that links with the University were perceived as tenuous, and the organizational aspects of the program were somewhat "loose". The role of the supervisor required further explication and the match of student and placement more careful consideration. This paper reviews the relevant literature, presents the findings of the project and outlines how the research enhanced the development of strong and mutually supportive relationships with the work-based supervisors in a co-op program.
The benefits of job-search seminars and mock interviews in a work experience course
Gregory Reddan
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 9(2), 113-127
Mock interview; work-integrated learning; student evaluations; exercise science; Australia
Prior research indicates that some form of career development program is essential to prepare undergraduate students for a competitive employment market. This research examined the benefits gained by students in preparation for the workforce following a program of job-search seminars and mock interviews. The study revealed that the students perceived the program produced significant increases, as indicated by changes in mean scores obtained on the Measure of Guidance Impact (Killeen, 1992). Pre- and post-mean scores of 79.2 and 98.0 were reported, compared with norm values of 82.5 and 93.4. This improvement in mean scores demonstrated the effectiveness of the program, compared with results obtained on a large-scale survey. Students indicated a low participation rate (15%) in voluntary job-search seminars, emphasizing the importance of including these seminars as a required course component in university programs. Generally, participants reported a favorable attitude to the job-search seminars and accompanying printed booklets. The subjects identified a number of benefits as a result of participating in mock interviews, as well as being a member of the interview panel. Overall, the students perceived they had developed a reasonably high level of confidence in preparation for "real-world" scenarios.
Industry-based learning and variable standards in workplace assessments
Shiu Ram
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 9(2), 129-139
Collaborative assessment; workplace supervisor; academic supervisor; student's grade; New Zealand.
Assessment of industry based learning (IBL) takes various forms. Invariably, this involves assessment of the actual work done and the 'product' of a student or a group of students during an IBL placement in the industry. Three stakeholders (organization in the industry, provider of education and training, and the student) are involved in one of the assessments which is known as collaborative assessment. During the assessment process the host mentor (i.e., workplace supervisor) and the academic supervisor represent the industry organization, and the provider of education and training respectively. From my experience as an academic supervisor for students majoring in computer-based information systems, I have become aware of variable standards in collaborative assessments. In this paper I will attempt to highlight some of the variations in assessment that I have personally experienced as a participating member of assessment teams. I will describe four instances of placements in order to delineate the variations. That variations in the standards in collaborative assessments exist is a reality. Should they exist? If not, then how can the situation be alleviated? Answers to these questions should be found as it makes sense that the grades that the students are awarded for their IBL represent as fair and accurate assessment as possible. Variations in standards in collaborative assessments have serious implications on the value of the grades and the credits that the students are awarded. Practitioners of cooperative education must strive to minimize the variations with a view to achieving more consistent collaborative assessments
Issue 1
The sponsoring by industry of universities of cooperative education: A case study in Germany
Karin Reinhard, Thomas Osburg, Rosemary Townsend
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 9(1), 1-13
Cooperative education; industry sponsorship; Germany
The current situation in the education sector requires academic institutions to be more flexible in terms of their approach to academic funding as well as in ensuring the appropriate return for businesses that are willing to sponsor their academic activities. The German model discussed in this article shows how a university of cooperative education in Germany was able to obtain assistance from a large business for a collaborative learning approach between academia and business. Sponsorship by businesses and foundations can provide imaginative solutions to the funding of higher education, all the more vital at a time when new technology has brought revolutionary changes in private and work life. Not only can business provide the necessary funding, but it can also facilitate a more effective and pragmatic approach to education. This article describes the various elements of sponsorship and how a university of cooperative education in Germany has started to explore ways to overcome the exclusive research focus by sponsoring companies and to start experimenting with new concepts in order to participate in private support from the business sector. Those new collaborations could be, for example, in the area of knowledge transfer and providing various ways of cooperation; that is, part-time lectures or student-consultancy assignments, where students try to solve a specific business issue.
Economics and business faculty development in a transition economy: The case of Vietnam
Dennis C. McCornac
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 9(1), 15-23
Education; Vietnam; faculty development; economics and business
The economic and social transformation of Vietnam over the past two decades has impacted dramatically on the country's educational requirements and systems. This has fostered both a need for skilled faculty and a call for changes in teaching methodology. The purpose of this paper is to report on the state of faculty development in a number of economics and business programs in Vietnam based on the experiences of non -Vietnamese and Vietnamese faculty members who have taught in Vietnam over the past decade and a half. The information is drawn both first-hand, based on the author's participation in a number of projects, and well as from in-depth discussions with faculty, administrators and students. The results suggest that a) institutions should consider implementing work integrated learning that combines classroom teaching with internships, study abroad and co-operative education; and b) faculty development should not only emphasize transferring knowledge, but there is a need to implement a sea change in traditional teaching and learning methodologies.
The role of technical and vocational education in the national development of Bangladesh
Gazi Alam
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 9(1), 25-44
Employment pattern; human capital; job market; national development; person power; rate of return; technical and vocational education
Education is a basic human right and considered by many as a key tool for national development. However, this tenet has been challenged by several economists, especially Pritchett (1996). His empirical analysis suggests that many countries, whilst having a large educated population, remain unable to make significant progress. It is also claimed that third world development is sluggish. These findings generate the question: while education increases globally, what exactly is it that hinders a country's progression? There are no short answers, but a major area of concern is the type and quality of education available. Scholars argue that countries need a well-diversified education system in order to gain sustainable development through education. This paper explores the situation for Bangladesh for its development by providing technical and vocational education.
Whāia te iti Kahurangi - in pursuit of excellence: Student efficacies, agency and achievement in early years tertiary education: an applied technology perspective
Deepa Marat, Miriama Postlethwaite, Nina Pelling, Ziming Qi, Prabhat Chand
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 9(1), 45-58
Applied technology; tertiary education; self-efficacy; agency, achievement; success; New Zealand
A mixed-methods approach was used to assess self-efficacy, agency, and perceptions of success of cohorts of students enrolled in applied technology programs. Aligned to the New Zealand Ministry's Statement of Intent 2004-2009 (Ministry of Education, 2004) "Whāia te mātauranga hei oranga mā koutou Seek after learning for the sake of your well-being" (p. 6), the present research project aimed to identify factors which facilitated use of learning strategies and achievement of first year tertiary students. The findings reveal the critical role of peers, teachers, and family support in student achievement and success in a bicultural and multi-cultural teaching-learning context.
Volume 8 (2007)
Issue 2
When students learn from experience in the occupational field
Thomas Groenewald
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 8(2), 93-107
Theorizing about learning; experiential learning; interpretive research; workplace learning pedagogy; South Africa
This research was prompted by my concern over the lack of uniformity in the terminology used to discuss student learning in the relevant occupational fields. The literature review was originally an attempt to give a thorough theoretical foundation to the discourse. Instead, it digressed and ended up illustrating both the disparity in nomenclature and the tangent plane of learning from, at and through work. The qualitative research design, which is based on a constructivist and interpretivist paradigm, is explained. The use of a questionnaire is also explained. The results substantiate my concern, but do not contribute to uniformity. Participatory action research is suggested as a way forward.
Internationalizing cooperative education: An introduction to the Berufsakademie Ravensburg's work-integrated cooperative education partnership with the multinational corporation SAP Incorporation
Karin Reinhard, Lars Satow, Lisa Sisco
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 8(2), 109-119
Internationalization; cooperative education; management; multinational; Germany
This paper introduces an innovative approach to cooperative education, between partners at the Berufsakademie Ravensburg, University of Cooperative Education, Germany and the multinational company, SAP Inc. First, the paper contextualizes the project with a brief overview of cooperative education's history and academic objectives, followed by an introduction to the process by which the Berufsakademie Ravensburg internationalized its cooperative education program through this project. Finally, the authors provide an overview of the SAP project, showing how a cross-country and cross-institutional project can develop intercultural management competencies, both for students and educational institutions.
Preparing students for the professional workplace: Who has responsibility for what?
Annerley Bates, Merrelyn Bates, Lyndel Bates
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 8(2), 121-129
Professional workplace; curriculum; accountability; framework; Australia
This paper considers the concepts of curriculum which underlie existing workplace based learning programs and advocates that clearly articulated and meaningful statements about the nature of the learning that occurs in such programs are couched in an appropriate discourse. It argues that universities must take the lead in meeting demands that educational institutions be more accountable for the learning of their students by developing curriculum statements that are consistent with an emancipatory model of curriculum. Such statements should specify the frameworks in which content and even assessment can be negotiated with individual students rather than being specified in advance and should demand that students take responsibility for their own learning.
Learning science and technology through cooperative education
Richard K. Coll, Chris Eames
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 8(2), 131-147
Learning; science; technology; New Zealand
Cooperative education, a form of experiential or work-integrated learning is common in tertiary educational institutions worldwide. However, in New Zealand few institutions provide work-integrated learning programs in science or technology, and the management and process of work-integrated learning programs is not that well understood. How well do such programs work? What infrastructure is needed to ensure learning actually occurs? Are graduates of work-integrated learning programs able to satisfy employer needs? This chapter synthesizes decades of work around such issues, and details research initiatives that provide valuable insights into how students learn science on in the workplace, how their skill development matches that desired by employers, and best practice for management of work-integrated learning in science and engineering.
The New England Award: Providing student development opportunities through cross-campus and external collaboration
Robyn Muldoon
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 8(2), 149-162
New England Award; student development; graduate competencies; collaboration; external; Australia
The New England Award recognizes and rewards student development in extracurricular activity via the New England Award. This recognizes skill development achieved via participation in non-accredited student activities. The case study research reported here suggests that such activities result in the development of graduate competencies valued by employers.
Are we on the move? Projects versus internships
Allister McLay, David Skelton
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 8(2), 163-167
Information technology; internships; project; New Zealand
Traditionally tertiary education providers of information technology programs provide industry-based capstone projects. Here the authors argue there is increasing need for capstone internships or a combination of projects and internships.
Issue 1
The role of education for rural population transformation in Bangladesh
Md. Rezaul Islam and Ahmadullah Mia
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 8(1), 1-21
Vocational education and training; rural; economic development; Bangladesh
Rural population transformation in the developing countries like Bangladesh is one of the contemporary issues in development paradigm. Firstly this article attempts to describe the current status of the education system including vocational education in Bangladesh and then looks how these educations systems are failing to meet the needs of the Bangladesh economic development needs. Finally, it will focus on how education and vocational education might help bring about transformation of the economy in a way that will help the nation to complete globally and how it might transform the economy from one that substantially rural and agricultural in base towards a knowledge skills-based economy.
Exploring connections between the in-field and on-campus components of a preservice teacher education program: A student perspective
Jeanne Maree Allen and Deborah Peach
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 8(1), 23-36
Teacher education and training; practicum; regional; theory-practice gap; Australia
This paper discusses the preservice teacher education practicum experience from the perspective of preservice teachers at a regional Australian university. It locates the practicum in the broader context of work integrated learning and associated principles of good practice. The paper argues that there are some perceived disconnections between the in-field and on–campus components of the teacher education program as well as an endorsement of some aspects of the practicum experience in closing the theory-practice gap. Our research adds to international debate about the balance between theory and practice and contributes a much needed student perspective on these issues. The paper concludes with suggestions on ways to improve the quality of the practicum experience.
The role of cooperative education in developing environmental science skills
Murray Cullen
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 8(1), 37-52
Cooperative education; environmental science; graduate attributes; skills; employability; Australia
A review of 65 position descriptions for environmental science students who participate in a cooperative education program identified 211 different attributes and skills required in the workplace for environmental science graduates. Evaluation surveys from 70 students were used to compare the attributes and skills identified from the cooperative education process. There was considerable demand for skills not typically taught in university programs. These included workplace skills such as occupational health and safety rules, appearance, punctuality, workplace language, and office skills such as photcopying and telephone answering. The collection of this information has been useful in developing graduate attributes, and at the same time has been important in establishing and reinforcing teaching to ensure relevance of the study program to the workplace, and hence the student's employability.
Academic learning for sport management students: Learning through engaged practice
Michelle O'Shea, Genevieve Watson
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 8(1), 53-65
Sport management; work placement; engaged practice; placement outcomes; professionalism; Australia
Sport management students seek employment in an overtly competitive market place. Competition is heightened because of the perceived desirability of sport as a workplace. Students require degree level qualifications and industry experience together with a host of generic and specific skills in order to be workplace ready. For this reason, student work placement is seen to be a necessary component of Sport management degree programs. This paper identifies placement outcomes and perceived value from the student perspective. Sport management students engaged in personal reflective practice throughout their work placement. Reflections were analyzed, demonstrating support for teaching through practice. Further, it provides a framework for curriculum development and best practice methodology.
A reflection on cooperative education: From experience to experiential learning
Mahmoud Haddara, Heather Skanes
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 8(1), 67-76
Development; cooperative education; experiential learning; North America
The paper provides a brief review of the development of cooperative education in North America over the last 100 years. It describes the different phases of this development and describes how cooperative Education research has traditionally dealt with the benefits that accrue to students, employers, and the institution. The paper notes that to reinvent cooperative education as an academic discipline, research in the area has to go beyond justifying its existence to demonstrating its true experiential learning and value.
Preparing accounting students for success in the professional environment: Enhancing self-efficacy through a work integrated learning program
Nava Subramaniam, Brett Freudenberg
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 8(1), 77-92
Accounting; self-efficacy; simulation; Australia
This study provides empirical evidence of the effect of a simulated work integrated learning (WIL) program on students' self-efficacy within an accounting context. An Accounting WIL Program was designed as a two-staged module using information seminars, networking sessions and in-depth workshops that helped develop final year accounting students' understanding of the accounting profession as well as some basic skills expected of a new recruit. Data from a questionnaire survey of 35 participant students indicates that the students perceived greater self-efficacy upon completion of the WIL program, and that male students appeared to show greater self-efficacy for selected items.
Volume 7 (2006)
Issue 2
Seeking industry perspectives to enhance experiential education in university-industry partnerships: Going beyond mere assumptions
Ross Smith, David Mackay, Di Challis and Dale Holt
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 7(2), 1-9
Industry perspective; industry partnership; experiential education; information technology; business; Australia
Setting up and running a program with an industry experiential learning component is based on certain core assumptions. A shared vision of what constitutes a satisfying placement is essential. In this paper we present findings from research into the operation of an Australian Bachelor of Business Information Technology program. In-depth interviews were held with 10 experienced industry sponsors/mentors and one member of a relevant professional body. Industry mentors identify pragmatic reasons for industry involvement in experiential learning programs. They identify some seven skills required of a good industry mentor, and report eight features of a meaningful/satisfying placement.
Hotel school students' views of their preparation for work-integrated learning: An exploratory study
Jane Spowart
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 7(2), 10-15
Food and beverage management; hotel school; students' perspective; work-integrated learning; South Africa
South African hotel schools offer national diplomas in Hospitality Management and Food and Beverage Management, both of which include compulsory work-integrated learning. This gives the students the opportunities to apply what they have learned and to be prepared for the workplace once their training is complete. Research was undertaken to determine whether the preparation in the classroom for this experience was the best possible. Questionnaires were distributed to students (N=15) who had completed their final work-integrated learning semester. This paper will share how the students, on reflection, viewed their preparation for the work-integrated learning component and what they recommend should be changed or improved by the academic advisors and the industry mentors.
Migrant students' and employers' perspectives on cooperative education in New Zealand: Implications for English language teaching
T. Pascal Brown, Robert Ayres
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 7(2), 16-23
TESOL; students; employer attitudes; EEO, New Zealand
New Zealand has at present a low unemployment rate and a shortage of skilled workers. There are also many immigrants from non-English speaking countries who are unemployed. These migrant New Zealanders often have no locally based work experience, know little about the culture of work and are lacking in English proficiency. Employers on the other hand can be reticent to employ a migrant for a variety of reason; the main ones being the migrant's English language skills and lack of work NZ-based work experience. Ways to overcome these barriers for the migrants, both linguistic and sociolinguistic, can best addressed in a TESOL course which includes a cooperative education module.
Work realities: Migrants preparing for the experience of work
David Cooke, T. Pascal Brown
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 7(2), 24-32
Work experience; authentic texts; migrant; power; work culture; work relations; New Zealand
Migrants entering cooperative work placements face layers of challenges that become apparent in scrutinizing workplace data. Drawing on authentic voice recordings of two worksites in Auckland, this paper traces three themes of workplaces: the exercise of power; the culture of the workplace; and work relations. It analyses the dynamics of a management meeting as it decides to require greater productivity from its workers. Then it describes the interactions of factory workers, focusing on its collaborative work culture and working relations. The paper derives implications for language education, especially in relation to migrant learners preparing for the workplace.
Work-integrated learning in music technology: Lessons learned in the creative industries
Paul Draper, Matt Hitchcock
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 7(2), 33-40
creative industries; knowledge transfer; music technology; work-integrated learning; Australia
Music technology students at Griffith University study sound recording and production. Graduate employment opportunities exist in wide range of creative industries which have a potential for wealth and job creation through individual creativity and the generation and exploitation of intellectual property. This paper examines a pilot work-integrated learning program in music technology and reveals common student intern work experiences, their significance for the local learning community and implications for the underpinning curricula. The paper concludes with suggestions for further research, seeking to improve the placement program through the streamlining and integration of administrative workload, curriculum design and research imperatives.
Issue 1
How a Chinese university trains engineers to meet with challenges today and tomorrow
Chen Meijuan
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 7(1), 1-6
Engineering; education reform; international exchange; China
This article provides background about education reforms currently happening in China's higher education system. Particular reference in these reforms is placed on integrating theory to applied skill learning, and theory to practical learning, with an aim to train students to gain lifelong ability to meet the needs of our modern society. A three-year 'Pilot Class' program at the University of Science and Technology, Beijing has changed our conventional education pattern from classroom and library-based work, to an active and multi-faceted academic community. The students in the Pilot Class, focus on integrating theory with practice, and spend much time participating in the real world, in factories, in design, and in international exchange programs to broaden their perspectives
Issues relating to designing a work-integrated learning program in an undergraduate accounting degree program and its implications for the curriculum
Indra Abeysekera
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 7(1), 7-15
Accounting; curriculum; experiential learning; work-based learning; work-integrated learning; Australia
Work-integrated learning (WIL) programs are becoming popular with students, government, employers, and universities. A major benefit of a WIL program is the increased employability of students, and this matches well with the present trend whereby students expect a pay-off from their investment in education. Although WIL programs are more common in some profession-based undergraduate courses than others, they have not been frequently discussed in relation to accounting in the Australian context. This paper discusses issues related to designing a WIL program for an undergraduate accounting program in an Australian context. The importance of WIL programs in general is followed by discussion on how WIL, work and knowledge are related to each other. The types of available WIL programs are discussed in relation to their applicability to an accounting program. Issues relating to designing a successful WIL program are discussed by its accounting faculty, academics, employers, professional accounting bodies and the government as stakeholders in the program. The WIL program's implications for the accounting curriculum are also discussed.
The German Berufsakademie work-integrated learning program: A potential higher education model for West and East
Karin Reinhard
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 7(1), 16-21
Berufsakademie; university of cooperative education; co-op model; career enhancement; India; Indonesia; Germany
In 1974 a Berufsakademie or 'university of cooperative education' in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, was established to construct a model of cooperative education. This model practiced at the Berufsakademie is unique compared to that of German higher educational institutions offering work-integrated learning programs or work placements. In order to be accepted into the Berufsakademie, students must possess a university entrance degree and additionally must be contracted with a company or a governmental institution for three years. The participants of this cooperative education or work-integrated learning model are thus both students and employees. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Berufsakademie program, the international Berufsakademie partnerships in the west and east, experiences with the Berufsakademie model in India and Indonesia, and to reflect upon implications for the potential use for this work-related learning methodology higher education in both western and eastern countries. From a review of the literature it appears that greater interaction between industry and educational institutions (beyond say internships) can assist the academic sector in bringing experiences to students, and thus provides innovation to improve and strengthen work-integrated learning.
Volume 6 (2005)
Issue 2
Environmental science cooperative education: Benefits for the student, the host organization, and the study program
Murray Cullen
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 6(2), 1-6
Employer benefits; student benefits; institution benefits; environmental science; internship; Australia
This paper describes the positive outcomes of a preliminary evaluation of a cooperative education program for environmental science students at Southern Cross University in Australia. Benefits reported for the student include increased employment opportunities, contacts with potential employers, knowledge of employers requirements, and the development of job application and interview experience. The host organization benefits by having eight weeks of student participation in projects and tasks, as well as access to university staff and facilities. The study program benefits from widespread acceptance in the workplace as well as gaining feedback into the development of skills and knowledge into the curriculum.
Bridging the gap: The use of learning partnerships to enhance workplace learning
Kate Collier, Jacqui McManus
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 6(2), 7-16
Learning partnerships; peer learning; workplace learning; transfer of learning; Australia
This paper examines the use of peer learning strategies and in particular learning partnerships, in a training program. Learning partnerships in this context are "learning relationships involving occasional meetings in which students support each others learning." (Sampson & Cohen, 2001, cited in Boud et al., 2001, p. 40). They attempt to stimulate, promote and engage individuals in effective problem solving, reflection and other forms of higher order thinking with their partners. Learning partnerships are traditionally employed in higher education to support student learning and usually as involves one to one interactions. However in this program, learning partnerships and allied strategies were embedded to help participants extend and apply their skills in 'learning how to learn'. The intention was that once these skills were developed, participants would be better equipped to transfer their learning into the workplace. The research analyses the level of success of the learning strategies employed, especially the use of learning partnerships in the transfer of learning to the workplace.
Keeping up with the play: Practicum, partnership and practice
Andy Martin, Sarah Leberman
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 6(2), 17-25
Learning; sport management; practicum; survey; New Zealand
This paper describes an inquiry into a sport management program in a New Zealand University. It provides evaluation based on feedback from sport organizations and graduates about their experiences of the sport management program practicum. The findings suggest that graduates and practicum organizations valued the linking of theory to practice through the sport Management Practicum and regarded it as professional preparation for careers in the sport industry. The importance of managing both student and organizational expectations was also highlighted. The graduates and supervisors concurred on the key needs of practicum students, which were to be enthusiastic, organized, show initiative and make the most of their practicum opportunity. One implication from this research is that it is important to see work-integrated learning as part of a whole course of study involving the placement organizations, rather than as a stand-alone component.
Student learning in relation to the structure of the cooperative experience
Jenny Fleming, Chris Eames
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 6(2), 26-31
Cooperative education; Learning; sport studies; program structure; New Zealand
Amongst cooperative education programs there is great diversity in placement length and structure, often governed as much by administration rather than learning opportunity. This paper describes a case study project that investigated students' perceptions of how the structure of the placement impacted upon their learning. The findings indicate that the 350 hours of placement was perceived as important for relationship building, developing trust and contributed to students defining their own meaning of practice in sport and recreation. Learning may be enhanced with more time in the workplace, and the use of tools such as projects that assist students understanding of their workplace community.
Issue 1
Recognizing and supporting a scholarship of practice: Soft skills are hard!
Stephen Johnston, Helen McGregor
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 6(1), 1-6
Professional practice; continuing professional development; internships; life-long learning; Australia
This paper reproduced with permission from the proceedings of the 2004 annual conference of the Australasian Association for Engineering Education, focuses on the importance of soft skills in modern professional practice in engineering. The authors review a discussion paper produced by the New South Wales Professional Standards Council and subsequent forum. The authors argue that the investigation of generic professional practice skills and their development is a critically important area of scholarship that must be incorporated into engineering research and teaching.
Establishing cooperative education as an integral part of the undergraduate curriculum at Ritsumeikan University
Toshiaki Kato
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 6(1), 7-12
Cooperative education; internship program; work-integrated learning; program variation; new program; internship philosophy; Japan
Internship programs have only become a part of the Japanese university system in the past 15 years. In the last 10 years, internship programs have quickly become widespread and, according to the latest government data, a total of 100,000 students participated in internships over the one year survey period. The short-term unpaid internship that stresses work experience is firmly taking root in Japan. However, those involved with internship programs in Japan are beginning to focus instead on developmental internships, that is, cooperative education that raises the quality of education through a joining of theory and practice. Here we presented an analysis of the factors leading to the rapid spread of internship programs in Japan as well as introduce Ritsumeikan University's internship programs and their potential to set the standard for cooperative education in Japan.
Volume 5 (2004)
Issue 2
Developing professional expertise in the knowledge economy: Integrating industry-based learning with the academic curriculum in the field of information technology
Dale Holt, David MacKay, Ross Smith
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 5(2), 1-11
Learning environments; professional education workplace learning; education design; IT/IS profession
Many organizations have felt a need to adapt and transform themselves in response to the forces of globalization. This also applied to universities and in this paper the authors present a contemporary case of a professionally designed curriculum in the filed of information technology. Key integrative dimensions are identified along with an analysis of the perspectives of teaching staff and students on the educational experience.
Issue 1
Analysing the world of work's requirements with the aim of enthusing companies about cooperative education
Thomas Dobbelstein, Susanne Taylor
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 5(1), 1-6
Cooperative education; customer satisfaction; Germany; South Africa
This essay suggests some methods to measure the companies' satisfaction with the education institution they collaborate with and to find out how these institutions may enthuse their employers to maintain this critical partnership. A brief contrast will be made between the South African model of cooperative education (as practiced by universities of technology/polytechnics) and that of the German Berufsakademies. The framework outlined will be the basis of a future comparative study measuring the satisfaction and enthusiasm companies demonstrate in the different educational contexts in which the cooperative education model is applied. Customer satisfaction, with the employer company that is offering the student an experiential (work-based learning) opportunity being the customer, is an important consideration in this education model.
From knowledge to action and back again: Building a bridge
Merrelyn Bates
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 5(1), 7-14
Criminology education; workplace learning; practicum
This paper describes a course field placement that provides practical learning opportunities for students in Griffith University's School of Criminology and Criminal Justice. The author takes the position that knowledge development is limited with out action and bases her augments on work by Hövels prepared for the WACE conference in Rotterdam, 2003.
'The Analytical Club': A unique cooperative education link between industry and academia
Neil Ward, A. Jefferies
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 5(1), 15-18
Chemistry; United Kingdom; industry links
This paper describes the formation of a network called 'The Analytical Club' a cohort of industries in the United Kingdom that support the University of Surrey's cooperative education or professional training program in analytical chemistry. The nature and practice of the club is described, along with perceived advantages for all parties.
International cooperative education student exchange program: Lessons from the chemistry experience
Neil Ward, Robert Laslett
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 5(1), 19-26
Chemistry; United Kingdom; Australia; international exchange
This paper describes an international exchange program for chemistry students between the University of Surrey's cooperative education or professional training program in the United Kingdom and Swinburne University of Technology industry-based learning student from Melbourne in Australia The nature and practice of the exchange arrangements described, along with perceived advantages reported by students.
International cooperative education: The European experience for students in chemistry
Neil Ward, Robert Frost, Laura Yonge
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 5(1), 27-34
Chemistry; United Kingdom; Europe; international exchange
This paper describes an international program for chemistry students of the University of Surrey's cooperative education or professional training program in the United Kingdom and employers in Europe. The nature and practice of the co-op placement are described, along with perceived advantages reported by student participants.
A case study regarding the implementation of an innovative experiential learning portfolio in human resource management
Thomas Groenewald, Melanie Bushney, Aletta Odendaaal, Melanie Pieters
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 5(1), 35-44
South Africa; experiential learning guide; human resource management; personal development plan; outcomes based; role clusters; assessment; employers
This paper describes an innovative experiential learning portfolio in the area of human resource management. The approach was driven by an obligation to introduce a work-integrated learning component to the South African National Diploma in Human Resource Management in the face of a restraining national curriculum. The authors developed a experiential learning guide and here describe features of that guide and its subsequent refinement.
Sport and recreation cooperative education projects: A medium for teaching and learning ethical principles
Jenny Fleming, Jo Ann Walton
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 5(1), 45-49
Cooperative education; ethical principles; ethics; learning; sport
This paper describes an approach for assisting learners to make best choices within an ethical practice context, and to teach learners how to deal with complex ethical issues. The approach consists of real-world cooperative education projects in the topic of sport and recreation studies in a New Zealand educational setting.
Community-based research projects: A new educational link experience for academia and industry in Rio Negro, Argentina
Neil Ward, Naiomi Hammond, Andrea Marcilla, Victor Brion, Mario Gustavo Mujica
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 5(1), 50-59
Community-based research; professional training; cooperative education, Argentina
Community-based projects in analytical chemistry resulted in real experience learning in an undergraduate science degree in Rio Negro, Argentina. A project involving the development of a research methodology skills through the assessment of the health status of a regional population formed the basis of the project. This program illustrates how such community-based projects could be used in developing countries as cooperative education opportunities.
Enhancing the relevance of a professional doctorate: The case of the Doctor of Education Degree at the University of New England
Neil Taylor, Tom W. Maxwell
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 5(1), 60-69
Australia; professional doctorate; evaluation
Professional doctorates have attracted criticism in a recent Australian government report: many such doctorates are reported to be almost indistinguishable from conventional PhD programs. In this paper we describe the Doctor of Education (EdD) degree at the University of New England and detail features of this degree that brand it as a professional degree. A key emphasis is the learning that occurs in the workplace. Recent evaluation of the EdD at UNE has been very favorable with students claiming to have gained significant professional benefits.
Volume 4 (2003)
New Zealand Association for Cooperative Education
Chris Eames
Report of the seventh New Zealand Association Cooperative Education Annual Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, 20-21 March 2003.
Issue 2
The internationalization of cooperative education: A Thailand perspective
Richard K. Coll, Dhirawit Pinyonatthagarn, Issra Pramoolsook
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 4(2), 1-6
Thailand; technology; engineering; international exchange; student perceptions
The research reported in this work is concerned with the internationalization of cooperative education, from the perspective of Thai students who completed work placements overseas and overseas students who completed placements in Thailand. The research represents a small-scale case study in which student views of the good and bad features of their placements were elicited via semi-structured interviews. The study suggests that there are common problems such as immigration difficulties and common advantages such as increased self-confidence and communication skills. This study, however, identified cultural issues particular to the context of the study. The paper concludes with some recommendations for practitioners.
Learning to work: Becoming a research scientist through work experience placements
Chris Eames
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 4(2), 7-15
New Zealand; science; technology; learning; sociocultural; enculturation
The research reported in this work represents a case study of 'Joe' a science and technology major in a cooperative education program. In this work Joe reflects on the learning encountered in his two work placements. The author uses sociocultrual theories of learning to examine Joe's story and argues that Joe became enculturated into a particular community of practice, that of a research scientist, as a result of his work-based learning program.
Business graduate competencies: Employers' views on importance and performance
Dave Hodges, Noel Burchell
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 4(2), 16-22
New Zealand; competencies; employers; business
This paper reports on a study of New Zealand employers of business graduates. The employers rated a series of graduate competencies in terms of importance using a seven-point Likert scale and also rated new graduate performance across the same competencies. In addition, the employers were asked their views of the value of prior experience on graduate competence. The study shows a large 'competency gap' between importance and performance. The implications of this gap are explored.
Science and technology stakeholders' ranking of graduate competencies part 3: Graduate perspective
Karsten Zegwaard, Dave Hodges
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 4(2), 23-35
New Zealand; competencies; science; technology; graduate
This paper reports on the third study of a four part study of New Zealand of science and technology graduates. The new graduates rated a series of graduate competencies in terms of importance using a seven-point Likert scale and also rated new graduate performance across the same competencies. Recent graduates' views have shifted away from that of students to become more in accord with employers.
Science and technology stakeholders' ranking of graduate competencies part 4: Faculty perspective
Karsten Zegwaard, Dave Hodges
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 4(2), 36-48
New Zealand; competencies; science; technology; faculty
This paper reports on the fourth study of a four part study of New Zealand of science and technology graduates. Science and technology faculty from two New Zealand tertiary education providers rated a series of graduate competencies in terms of importance using a seven-point Likert scale and also rated new graduate performance across the same competencies. Faculty have strong views on what they perceive to be important competencies ands it seems these views may have influenced the views of student and graduates completing further studies.
Growing talented people through cooperative education: A phenomenological exploration
Thomas Groenewald
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 4(2), 49-61
South Africa; talent; phenomenological; learnerships
Internationally, talent is seen as a key factor for global competitiveness. In this paper a case is made for the use of cooperative education to foster talent in post-Apartheid South Africa. The research reported in this work is based on a phenomenological approach.
Issue 1
Linking cooperative education and education for sustainability: A new direction for cooperative education
Subhashni Nathan, Neil Taylor
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 4(1), 1-8
Education for sustainability; social justice; environmental education; linking EfS and cooperative education
Education for sustainability (EfS) is a provocative and topical subject in education at all levels. In this article the authors argue that cooperative education provides a unique means of addressing EfS. The authors propose three models for the delivery of EfS via cooperative education and assert that the time is ripe for cooperative education to led the way for the development of EfS.
Assessment of workplace learning: A framework
Karsten Zegwaard, Richard K. Coll, Dave Hodges
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 4(1), 9-18
New Zealand; science; technology; assessment; framework; sociocultural
The assessment of the work placement for cooperative education programs is a worldwide problem. In this paper the authors propose a framework based on research in education and sociocultural views of learning. The framework is then used to develop three models for the assessment of work placements. The authors argue that workplace learning is complex and socially-situated and thus any assessment model needs to take such complexities into account in order to do justice to the learning that occurs.
The roles of a Director, Coopeartive Education: Leading, managing and adminsitration
Susanne Taylor
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 4(1), 19-23
South Africa; management; leadership; administration; cooperative education unit; workplace learning
The first 100 days in office for any manager is seen by many as crucial. In this article the author traces the beginings of the Director, Cooperative Education and Placement at a South African technikon. The author reports on the analysis of the Director's reflective diary and this suggests that the largest proportion of time is spent in management activities with little time spent on adminstration. The tensions between managemnt, administration and leadership are explored.
Volume 3 (2002)
New Zealand Association for Cooperative Education
Katherine Gibson
Report of the sixth New Zealand Association Cooperative Education Annual Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, 21-22 March 2002.
Technikon Witwatersrand, South Africa
Susanne Taylor
Opportunities for Research
Issue 2
Cooperative education at Riyadh College of Technology: Successes and challenges
Ahmed M. Aleisa, Mohammed A. Alabdulhafez
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 3(2), 1-8
educational evaluation; Saudi Arabia; science and technology
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has experienced enormous economic and social development in the last ten years. This has resulted in a significant challenge to provide an educated workforce to sustain this growth. The Riyadh College of Technology has been at the forefront of, workforce training and this has been achieved through its science and technolgy degrees which incorporate work-based learning. In this paper we provide details of an evaluation, from all three partners, of the College's work-based learning program.
Ranking workplace competencies: Student and graduate perceptions
Elizabeth Rainsbury, Dave Hodges, Noel Burchell, Mark Lay
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 3(2), 8-18
competencies; New Zealand; business; ranking
This study concerned New Zealand business students and graduates ranking of a series of 24 workplace competencies. The results show a close similarity between students and graduates' ranking of the five most important competencies, namely, computer literacy, customer service orientation, teamwork and co-operation, self-confidence, and willingness to learn. There also was little difference between the two groups in their rankings of cognitive or 'hard' skills and behavioral or 'soft' skills. However, the graduates placed greater importance on most of the competencies, resulting in a statistically significant difference between the graduates and students' ranking of both hard and soft skills. The findings from this study suggest that cooperative education programs may help develop business students' awareness of the importance of graduate competencies in the workplace.
Science and technology stakeholders' ranking of graduate competencies part 1: Employers perspective
Richard K. Coll, Karsten Zegwaard, Dave Hodges
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 3(2), 19-28
New Zealand; employers; ranking; competencies; science; technology; hard skills; soft skills; technical skills
In this paper we report the views of science and technology sector employers about the importance of a variety of workplace competencies. Employers of students from the University of Waikato's cooperative education program completed a questionnaire (n=172) in which they rated the relative importance of a list of 24 workplace competencies (using a 7-point Likert scale) for new graduates entering the workforce now, and for new graduates who will do so in 10 years time. The survey instrument, taken from the literature, was that used to investigate the views of business sector stakeholders (employers, graduates and students) and science and technology students. According to science and technology employers, the top competencies required for new science and technology graduates are; ability and willingness to learn, teamwork and cooperation, initiative, and analytical thinking with concern for order, quality and accuracy, computer literacy, and written communication skills rated next most important. As with employers of business students, the science and technology employers considered all competencies to be important but the latter saw little change in the importance of these competencies in 10 years time. The results of the present work show that the science and technology employers rated both 'hard' skills and 'soft' skills as important, but they placed more emphasis on hard skills than science and technology students or business sector stakeholders.
Sporting best practice: An industry view of work placements
Lesley Ferkins
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 3(2), 29-34
New Zealand; Sport; best practice; evaluation
This paper reports on an investigation into the current practice of student work placements in sport studies in Auckland New Zealand. It identifies the scope and range of student and sport organization involvement, and reports on the industry perspective of the process. The study also identifies recommendations from employers to improve the placement process and to assist in developing best practice guidelines for industry organizations involved in learning via cooperative education.
Science and technology stakeholders' ranking of graduate competencies part 2: Students perspective
Richard K. Coll, Karsten Zegwaard, Dave Hodges
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 3(2), 35-44
New Zealand; students; ranking; competencies; science; technology; hard skills; soft skills; technical skills
Students from the University of Waikato's cooperative education program completed a questionnaire (n=71) in which they rated the relative importance of a list of 24 workplace competencies (using a 7-point Likert scale) for graduates entering the workforce now, and those who will do so in 10 years time. The top five ranked competencies in order were; ability and willingness to learn, initiative, achievement orientation, personal planning and organizational skills, and analytical thinking. Comparison with business sector students showed some differences in what students thought were the most important competencies, with business students ranking computer literacy, teamwork and cooperation and self-confidence more highly than their science and technology counterparts. The science and technology students saw computer literacy as the competency most likely to increase in importance in the future. The results of the present work show that science and technology students believed all competencies were important and that both 'hard' skills and 'soft' skills are important, suggesting that they perceive a need to be multi-skilled before entering the workforce. However, comparison of these data with that of science and technology employers, suggests that the employers see hard skills as well as teamwork and cooperation as more important (ranked second most important).
An investigation into the possibility of a growing trend in cooperative education: 'Reverse cooperative education'
Susanne Taylor
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 3(2), 45-52
South Africa; continuous education; experiential learning; life-long learning; reverse cooperative education; workplace learning; work-based learning; work-integrated learning
Cooperative education as a strategy for combining classroom learning with workplace training is becoming well known internationally. So too are the concepts of life-long learning and continuous education and in the minds of many authors learning is not confined to what happens in a classroom, neither is it a 'one-off' experience. Cooperative education typically occurs when a learner is placed into the actual working environment. The question arises, what about a working adult entering the academic arena? If this process is formalized could there be a new slant to cooperative education - one of life-long learning and reversal of cooperative education where the world of work sends its adult learner into the education sector? There is some recent research, including that from a small South African case study presented here, that suggests that there is now a growing trend worldwide - a trend of 'reverse cooperative education'. The author considers that practitioners of cooperative education globally need to consider what implications such a trend has for the practice of cooperative education. This issue is discussed in this paper along with suggestions for further research into 'reverse cooperative education'.
University of Cooperative Education – Karlsruhe: The dual system of higher education in Germany
Axel Göhringer
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 3(2), 53-58
Germany; program description; technology; engineering; business; employer evaluation
This paper describes the acceptance of German Berufsakademie or University of Cooperative Education graduates in the job market. This system, unique to this kind of university in Germany, combines theory and practice in equal parts. The first part of this paper describes this 'dual' system of education and provides a general overview of its history and the special features that make this model so effective in Germany. The second part of the paper describes the Berufsakademie Karlsruhe, its faculties and the importance of its location in one of Germany's most advanced high-technology areas. The paper concludes with the presentation of some research findings for an empirical investigation, which shows that Berufsakademie graduates are highly sought after by their training companies and other employers. The research suggests that graduates are in demand because they are able to do responsible tasks soon after graduation without the need further training.
Issue 1
Global education in Asia for the twenty-first century
Prof. Wichit Srisa-an
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 3(1), 1-4
Thailand; global education; borderless education; distance education; open learning; virtual learning; life-long learning
Prof. Wichit Srisa-an is a leading figure in Thailand education. He has an international reputation for innovation in education and vast experience of education in Thailand and the Asia-Pacific region. In this article, reproduced from his book "Global Education: Borderless Worlds" he shares his education vision for Thailand and the region.
Assessment of work based learning: Some lessons from the teaching profession
Richard K. Coll, Neil Taylor, Sheila Grainger
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 3(1), 5-12
New Zealand; United Kingdom; teaching practicum; assessment
The assessment of work-based learning is a major challenge for practitioners worldwide. However, there are many professions, such as teaching, that have along history of external moderation on their assessment practices. In this paper we examine present and past practice in the assessment of teaching practica and consider what the experiences of the teaching profession have to offer other work-based learning programs.
Cooperative education interventions aimed at transferring new technologies from a developed to a developing economy: Germany/South African collaboration in the automotive industry
George De Lange
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 3(1), 13-17
South Africa; Germany; international exchange; globalization
South Africa, like many other developing countries is facing the consequences of globalization. Globalization represents a significant challenge for the republic. In this article three models of intervention that seek to transfer technologies from a developed to a developing country are described. The author suggest that these models provide a working infrastructure for the exchange of students between two countries and significantly advances students' understanding for both technical and non-technical skills.
Cooperative work placement: Education monolingual gatekeepers
Annette Sachtleben
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 3(1), 18-21
New Zealand; non-English speaking background students
This essay considers questions of inequality, language and power, in the context of non-English speaking background (NESB) at an English-medium university. It has some guidelines as to how best get international or recent migrant students into a cooperative work placement. Strategies for coping with and improving the process of job placement are outline to assist administrators who deal with work placements in their programs.
Volume 2 (2001)
New Zealand Association for Cooperative Education
Dave Hodges
Report of the fifth New Zealand Association Cooperative Education Annual Conference, Rotorua, New Zealand, 22-23 March 2001
Technikon Witwatersrand, South Africa
Susanne Taylor
Cooperative Education: The Missing Link?
Issue 2
Insights from an evaluation of a workplace-based course in business for tourism and hospitality students in Australia
Martin Hayden, Ron Dowell, Helen Saenger
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 2(2), 1-11
workplace-based education; educational evaluation; business studies; tourism studies
Workplace-based courses are becoming increasingly common in Australian higher education. These courses are generally delivered at a distance, whether by print or on-line, and are distinguished by their focus specifically upon the workplace-based learning needs of the students. They also usually involve a partnership between an employer and a university. An evaluation of one such course, a Diploma of Business Management program undertaken by employees of the Ansett Australia airline, provides an insight to elements of success in these courses. The evaluation also presents an example of how workplace-based courses can be comprehensively appraised
Assessing the contribution of internship in developing Australian tourism and hospitality students' management competencies
Maree Walo
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 2(2), 12-28
assessment; management competencies; tourism and hospitality; Australia
This study assessed students' perceptions of their level of management competence, before and after the internship component of their degree programme. A self-assessment instrument utilising the management competencies within the Competing Values Framework (Quinn, Faerman, Thompson, & McGrath, 1990) was used for the empirical stages of the study. The key findings of this research imply that the internship programme has proved effective in contributing towards the development of management competencies for this cohort of students. The study provides valuable insight into the relationship between internship and the development of students' management competencies and highlights the need for further research in this area.
Issue 1
Accessing professional artistry: The importance of cooperative education and the limitations of classical research
Sheila Grainger
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 2(1), 1-5
teacher training, practicum, research paradigm
In this paper the author argues that cooperative education, in the form or practicums, form an essential part of teacher training and is the means by which academic content or professional knowledge gains real value. Through their practical craft, or artistry, practitioners implement their professional or academic knowledge base, so it can be employed for the purposes it was intended, whether this is to design a technological solution to an industrial problem, or to educate children. Research in education is driven by paradigms that fail to take account of the complexity of the teaching environment. A more holistic approach to teacher education is required and the author suggests that cooperative education has the potential to play an important role in the education of teacher trainees. Research into cooperative education likewise needs to be developed via a holistic approach using qualitative or interpretative strategies
Student and employer reflections of an international science and technology work placement
Stuart Beard, Richard K. Coll, Jon Harris
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 2(1), 6-10
placement purpose; placement objectives; professional growth; personal growth; credible employer
In this paper we describe student and employer reflections of an English student's work placement at a New Zealand analytical chemistry laboratory. The reflections are presented in the form of narratives in which the authors examine student and employer perceptions of the critical factors that they believe led to a successful international placement. The paper seeks to establish what led to this success and to examine what makes for a credible employer of international students; that is, an employer that provides an environment in which the student achieves personal and professional growth. The authors propose that enhancement of professional and personal growth for the student occurred as a result of student-employer negotiated placement objectives and on-going support during the placement. The principal benefit for the employer was found to be access to a continuing supply of local graduates as a result of employer support for the University's cooperative education program
Student experience of international cooperative education: Reflections on personal and professional growth
Natalie Ann Wong, Richard K. Coll
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 2(1), 11-18
placement purpose; placement objectives; professional growth; personal growth; science; technology
In this paper we provide a description of a student New Zealand student's reflections for her work placement at a modern England-based food-industry as part of an international exchange arrangement. These reflections are presented in the form of a narrative in which the student (the first author) describes the context of the work placement and the nature of the student and employer expectations. The student considered the placement to be highly successful, resulting in enhancement of practical and personal skills. The authors attempt to identify key factors that led to a successful placement and conclude with some suggestions that they believe will enhance international cooperative education exchange arrangements of this type
Development of an integrated common support structure for the administration of cooperative education: Presented from a South African perspective
Susanne Taylor
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 2(1), 19-22
technikon; administration model; information technology; South Africa
The administration of cooperative education programmes is of interest worldwide as tertiary education institutions struggle to deliver programmes of study in a cost effective manner. In this paper I provide a description of the development of an integrated common support structure for the administration of cooperative education. This proposal, developed within the context of technical institutes in South Africa, is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies (ICT). It is suggested that the technikon system in South Africa may benefit from the use of a particular ICT administration package that contains a module designed specifically for cooperative education.
In sickness and in health: Learning and assessment inside and outside the New Zealand qualifications framework
Laurie Richardson
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 2(1), 23-30
assessment; collaborative; external moderators; performance criteria; standards setting bodies
National qualifications frameworks are often considered to be a panacea for educators and educational institutions. In this paper I examine the implementation of the New Zealand Qualifications Framework, with particular emphasis on the relationship between educational institutions and industry partner organizations. It is argued that Government policy must take cognizance of differing skills of industry and education, and not create an imbalance in power that inhibits effective implementation of national frameworks. The issue is illustrated by a description of the experience of the implementation of the Diploma in Applied Technology at UNITEC Institute of Technology.
Volume 1 (2000)
New Zealand Association for Cooperative Education
Dave Hodges
Report of the Fourth New Zealand Association Cooperative Education Annual Conference, Rotorua, New Zealand, 24 March 2000
Cooperative Education Unit, University of Waikato
Chris Eames
A comprehensive database of New Zealand cooperative education programs
University of Victoria British Columbia
Michel P. Janisse
Launch of Regional Journal
Issue 2
Evaluating service quality for cooperative education programs
Richard K. Coll, Richard Chapman
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 1(2), 1-12
employer; quantitative survey; service quality
This study reports an investigation of employers' perceptions of satisfaction of service quality for a cooperative education program at a New Zealand university. Five dimensions of service were identified and the employers' rated student selection as most important. The study illustrates the importance of understanding employers' needs in order to ensure that the placement process is managed effectively.
Issue 1
Choices of methodology for cooperative education researchers
Richard K. Coll, Richard Chapman
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 1(1), 1-8
methodology, qualitative, quantitative.
Research methodology in cooperative education has been dominated by quantitative inquiry. In this article the advantages and disadvantages of quantitative and qualitative methodologies is discussed. The authors propose that the choice of research methodology should be determined by the nature of the research objectives. It is further proposed that cooperative education researchers should consider qualitative or combined-methodology inquiries. Guidelines for interview technique are provided to aid in development of qualitative approaches to research.
The role of the placement coordinator: An alternative model
Richard K. Coll, Chris Eames
Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 1(1), 9-14
placement coordinator, role, science, technology.
An analysis of the cooperative education literature resulted in the identification of three models for the role of the placement coordinator; a simple administrative role, as part of a centralized unit of coordinators whose role is still substantially administrative in nature, and a model in which coordinators hold joint positions as placement coordinators and teaching faculty within their specialty areas. In this article the authors propose that this latter role offers significant advantages. Advantages include the ability of the coordinator to get to know the students better through classroom interactions, leading to a better understanding of the employers' business and to enhanced matching of student and employer. Disadvantages identified include the difficulty of balancing the coordinator's role with that of other academic activities, particularly research, and relatively high administration costs.